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Unintended Metaphors
by Barie Fez-Barringten   
Rated "G" by the Author.
Last edited: Monday, November 19, 2012
Posted: Monday, July 16, 2012

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Consciously acknowledged or not, by both creators and users, the man- made built environment is a potential symbol which creators and users can either ignore or recognize; not only a symbol but a metaphor.

It is the intention of this monograph to validate, and, hopefully, encourage the intentional, controlled, and designed making of metaphors because building metaphors are actual, real and consequential. The matter of applying the technology and ideas to make such metaphors are abundant. What is at question is the will and intention of using these resources. In other words, whether we intentionally make a metaphor or not, the building is a perceived metaphorically as a metaphor.

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                     Even if a builder intentionally aims at not making a metaphor the building is still perceived as a metaphor. Creators of the environment perceive the created work; in different ways and for different reasons. These differences are in the effort, time and intensity of involvement with the creation and subsequent use of the work. The result of creator's efforts becomes a symbol and a metaphor, this phenomena is serious, important and with its consequences worthy of validating. The creator, well-motivated or not, will be at the beginning with an idea and involved in the process of using technology to convert ideas into a reality. The user, perceiving or not, is involved with the product of this process and for a much longer period of time., perhaps attaching to it meaning, significance and importance often different and unexpected by its author.                                                                                                              When by chance, the importance and consequences of the authors concerns are successfully imparted and manifested in the work and perceived by the users we can observe that this phenomena is rooted in the author's own sensitivity and concern about what his context means to him and his family. What importance is the built environment in his own life and how would its improvement, change, or modification affect him?    It has been personal, cerebral, and willful. The architect chose to do it and followed his decision by a sustained effort. Have architects ignored there right, authority and unwritten mandate by being careless about this creative goal. The goal of making metaphors and symbols, and, if revived what would change? Would they be more uplifted and would their lives improve? Would the perception of there lives improve? Unintended Metaphors It is said that unlike the medical profession, what architects do has no affect on the physical life or death of his client. He just uses an eraser, etc.                                                                                What about the social, psychological and, yes,  the spiritual life of users. Metaphors architects make have a significant impact on both the users and the context in which their works are set. This phenomenon is being exacerbated by computer aided designing and virtual reality. Computer aided design miniaturizes and abstracts the bounding and limiting characteristics of environments. Alternatively, it could be a metaphor maker’s tool just as a word processor and internet are to writer. There was a time when architects could only be religious men vested with a known calling from the creator of all things to carry out his calling to provide buildings symbolizing God's message to man and later his blessings. They were kinds of prophets given a burden by God. Today, both theists and atheists practice forming the environment. Works are derived from user's program of requirements; technology; context; and concerns for their health, safety and welfare. Yet the built environment and its works of architecture are uneven in quality and apparent maintenance and upkeep. Unintended Metaphors "Idealism and the working metaphor"

(1.0, pg.24)Jean Piaget expresses psychology as an Idealist. (1.0)Idealism is perhaps the oldest systematic philosophy in western culture, dating back at least as early as (pg.31)Plato (427‑347 B.C.) in ancient Greece. Generally, idealists believe that ideas are the only true reality. They hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability, and uncertainty, while some ideas are enduring. If the architectural profession basis its practice on idealism with out a vision from God then even its few ideas will be fruitless and without benefit. A house built without God has no foundation. Without a vision a nation will perish. God and not man is our true source. It is God's truth, and not man's that will set us free. Systematic philosophy is sophisms. that is man's efforts to replace what God has already given to us in his word. The Holy Spirit is our true daily source of vision. God said, “come let us reason together".

                      This is God's invitation to every architect to let Him and not the architect conjure his own idea, but to let go, and, let God.

Ozman, H.A., and Craver, S.M., "Philosophical foundations of education" Unintended Metaphors

The 1metametaphor theorem is then idea‑ism. John Locke (1632‑1704) said that ideas are not innate as Plato maintained; rather, they came from experience, that is, sensation and reflection. The very things of which man's metaphors are made. As people are exposed to experiences, they are impressed on the mind. These experiences are all imprinted on the mind through one or more of the five senses. Once they are in the mind they can be related in a variety of ways through the use of reflection.

                       We can acquire the idea of milk through the sense of taste; perfume through the sense of smell; velvet through the sense of touch; and green through sense of sight. One can create ideas of green milk or perfumed velvet. These are all mundane and profane. Man not relying upon God, but upon his own and very limited life. Alive with God we are urged to let God's full knowledge of all He has created be accessible to the architect. With man God can create so much more than man. As God judges the universe so He provides man the ability to judge, and with judgement the ability to know His will. 1. Meta: used with the discipline of the metaphor to designate a new but related discipline designed to deal critically the original metaphor. It is more comprehensive and transcends the literary metaphor.

(1.0) Ozman, H.A., and Craver, S.M.,Philosophical foundations of education"

                Locke believed that as people have more experience they have more ideas imprinted on the mind and more to relate. More to exude, reify and translate. These expressions we perceive and can apply as metaphors. He believes that the only way we can verify the correctness of our ideas are in the world of experience. Whereas the word of God gives us His peace, conviction of the holly spirit, and the word as the ultimate test. Does the creation conform to God's word: is it fruitful, profitable, uplifting, encouraging, strong, safe, compatible and helpful to is context, neighbors and society; and, most importantly does it glorify God                                                         "Information gathering" perceiving and reifying process. Which solidifies and forms by juxtaposing the conditions, operations, ideals and goals (C.O.I.G.) of a project? It is the synapse, transformation and interrelationships of these (C.O.I.G.) which creates the composition we call metaphor. The content of the work of architecture is the experience with these program elements that are brought about by the (4.1) technique of creativity. "Technique reveals what content itself cannot". These are the remembered mental schema where a prior experience is accumulated nurtured and encouraged.         Unintended Metaphors "Learn with Metaphors":

                    Architects learn to learn; and, learn to research, program, analyze, develop sources and resources, dimension, scale, volume, limits, boundaries, scope, depth, movement, context, etc where none existed before. The maker of architectural metaphors sees in an "open-ended" seamless situation very specific parameters where the inexperienced fails. It is in the phenomena of his 1a prior; holistic experience with (4.1) techniques of making that the individual with all the elements is able to take a new content into yet another metaphor. A new metaphor which never did exist before yet is based upon every known experience of architects, his or heir’s profession, the school they attended the way they learned and knowledge they accumulated.                                       Each is unique yet well related by the commonality of the uniformity of the information, the (4.1)

          Dodds, G., "On the place of architectural speculation"

                 1. A priori: from the former, deductive; relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositions; presupposed by experience; being without examination or analysis. Formed or conceived beforehand. Presumptive as compared do a posteriori: from the latter, inductive, relating to or derived by reading from observed facts. Experiences, contexts, teaching foundation, schools of philosophy, family and social contexts, etc. The exercise prepares future architects to be in their own time, with their own history, venues and contexts and yet be able to originate works of architecture which are peculiar, particular, tailor-made, and indigenous. Such transcends but adapts well to culture, tradition and heritage.

Unintended Metaphors (4.1)                                                        

                   It is the metaphor that reveals the content. It is the metaphor that was composed of the content that has all the cues, limits, bonds, and sense stimulants so organized on the basis of the program that, when perceived, recalls the content to users. This remaking is a restoration of knowledge that does not resemble the original so much as it leads to the essential condition of the 1referent. The 1referent may include every experience of the architect, the process of creating this very project, and all the elements which form the building. Indeed the process is 2heuristic as a restoration or remaking of a condition that is no longer present. The metaphor too reveals whatever does not bring itself forth. This is the mission of the composer which is endued in the residue of his experience: the metaphor. It all is an extension of his identity and the vehicle by which he is (manifests, asserts, confirms, tests, and again becomes) the architect.

(4.1) Dodds, G., "On the place of architectural speculation"

1. Referent: the "thing" that a symbol stands for.

2. Heuristic: to discover; as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial and error methods.

                        It is exploratory self-educating, and improves performance.

Unintended Metaphors "

                      The metaphor's correlations" Can a metaphor composed by one be read by another? If both have been similarly cultured by the same experiences the reader and composer may communicate through the work. No two people, even in identical situations perceive and retain in the same way. Mark Gelernter explains that (2.0) the individual culture gives explicit guidance about which solutions work and which solutions other members of the culture will understand. Certainly this is true for the standard expectations any society values it’s' neighborhoods, building types and styles. These become the measures by which an individual values his or her success and accomplishments, and by which he or she can compare him or herself to others in society. It is a primary function of any metaphor and the metaphors in a society which cue us toward our relative positions. This is a function of art, architecture and all other metaphors. It enters the culture's general repertoire. (2.0)Cultural traditions provide rapid competence when recurring and familiar problems are faced, and when new problems emerge they provide the essential base of knowledge from which new ideas are derived. Indeed there are many published standards for graphics, layouts, detailing, design organization, specifications, contracting, management and construction. These are never meant to be copied, but along with manufacturer, context, site, program and personal specific information metaphorically 1created to produce the appropriate and relevant metaphor. They can be emulated.

Gelernter, M., "Teaching designs innovation through design traditions" Create: to bring into existence; to invest with a new form using imaginative skill as design and invention.

Unintended Metaphors

Biographic references:

1.0. Howard A. Ozman, and Samuel M.Craver, "Philosophical Foundations of education", (2nd ed.), Charles E.Merril (1981)

2.0. Mark Gelernter (School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver) "Teaching design Innovation through Design Tradition", Proceedings of the 1988, Seventy-sixth Annual meeting of the Association of the Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA)

3.0. "Main currents in Modern thought" Sept‑Oct 1971 Vol. 28, # 1; Journal of the Center for Integrative Education. 3.1. William J. Gordon, "The metaphorical way of knowing" 3.2. Paul Weiss, "The metaphorical process"

4.0. Journal of Architectural Education, Nov.1992, Vol.46, No.2, Journal of the Association of the Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA). 4.1. George Dodds, "On the Place of Architectural Speculation"

5.0. M. Seuphor (1972 N.d.) "Piet Mondrian, Life and Work". H.N. Abrams Inc. New York. Abdulaziz Al‑Saati, "Mondrian: Neo‑Plasticism and its influences in Architecture" :

6.0. Mehdi Nakosteen, "The history and philosophy of education". Ronald Press, New York (1965). Unintended Metaphors Researched Publications: Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs": Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University

1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" © Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.

2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.

3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture

4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on since 2008

5. "The Metametaphor© of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997

6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993

7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994

8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994

9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.

10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995 1

1."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995

12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland

13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993

14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne

15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010

16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197

17. "Metaphors and Architecture."© October, MIT

18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”;© University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture.

19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section

20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten;;

21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: ©AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103.

22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010)

23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87.

24. “The soverign built metaphor” © monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011

25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”©The Book; Cambridge Scholars Publishing Published: Feb 2012 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK 





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