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Barie Fez-Barringten

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The significance of architecture:the making of metaphors ©
By Barie Fez-Barringten   
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Last edited: Saturday, February 16, 2013
Posted: Tuesday, July 24, 2012

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The Significance of Aarchitecture:the making of metaphors ©
Barie Fez-Barringten
bariefezbarringten.gmail.com
www.bariefez-barringten.com

What beyond the probability that it may be possible that urges us to believe the truth that architecture is not only the making of metaphors; not only an art because it too makes metaphors; but, that it is a metaphor. Architecture is a metaphor. Why is this true? Not metaphorically, inference, nor deduction but a self evident reality. The following discussion about identity, cues, mnemonics, vernacularism, archetypes, symbols, ii, reification and alienation define the metaphors in architectural terms. Architecture explains the metaphor and metaphor architecture. They are synonyms on the plain of organized ideas. They each enhance each other and at best explain art. As art, the metaphor identifies the archetype and as long as we think we exude metaphors. These metaphors are an applied art that become what we were, where conceived and who we'd hope we'd be when "read".

The significance of architecture:the making of metaphors ©

Barie Fez-Barringten

bariefezbarringten.gmail.com

www.bariefez-barringten.com

          What beyond the probability that it may be possible that urges us to believe the truth that architecture is not only the making of metaphors; not only an art because it too makes metaphors; but, that it is a metaphor. Architecture is a metaphor. Why is this true ? Not metaphorically, inference, nor deduction but a self evident reality. The following discussion about identity, cues, mnemonics, vernacularism, archetypes, symbols, ii, reification and alienation define the metaphors in architectural terms. Architecture explains the metaphor and metaphor architecture. They are synonyms on the plain of organized ideas. They each enhance each other and at best explain art. As art, the metaphor identifies the archetype and as long as we think we exude metaphors. These metaphors are an applied art that become what we were, where conceived and who we'd hope we'd be when "read". Settlement patterns may be more important than the dwelling

(Bedouin, Navaho, Jews): (1.1)"Scruffy" landscape identifies the higher‑status group (Westchester England).

             The (1.1)House as a symbol of self : is where individual identity is paramount so that the psychological concept of self‑identity and self‑esteem are linked (Western). The (1.1)Iroquois longhouse is the symbol of the league not the individual. The Iroquois were the "people of the longhouse" where the dwelling was metaphoric for the group but not the individual. Even today when they live in separated houses they refer their identity back to the longhouse. (1.1) A. Rapoport, "Identity and Environment: A cross‑Cultural Perspective" J.S. Duncan, "Housing and Identity" (1.1)Australian Aborigines communicate their difference and therefore establish boundaries through language, dress, hairstyles, etc. but not necessarily territory. Distinctiveness (identity) must be communicated. (1.1)U.S. public housing projects is where often identification to place carries a Stigma. They can carry with them a negative identity and can be stereotyped leading to a process of stigmatization. (1.1)Groups may identify themselves from others as: Nomads vs farmers; M'Buti pygmies vs. Bantu farmers; Jews vs Gentiles; Christians vs. Moslems; etc. (1.1)Sub‑groups may also identify themselves at various scales as: people of the black tent; Bedouin of tribe A, clan B; Iroquois ‑ the people of the longhouse; sex groups, for example men vs. women in traditional cultures; extended family; nuclear family; clans; work or residential groups. (1.1)Individuals also do identify themselves in terms of roles as: priests, kings, architects, dentists, teachers, writers, etc. Architecture is a metaphor for who we are even if it is just a building or has very little thought connected to the form, shape, space and scale. Its' very existence communicates and identifies us to ourselves, others or amongst our own group. (1.1)The ethnocentric social comparison in a metaphor is based on one's own group (and its' standards) are taken as a point of reference as: "The people" (as human vs. other sub‑humans); Greeks vs. Barbarians, etc. These are all internal vs. external comparisons establishing metaphors as barriers, boundaries and distinctions. Environments communicate meanings through the use of materials, vacant lots, litter and a low degree of maintenance. These can all be read negatively and have a stigmatic effect. These are all to give examples that buildings, sitting, locations and the general environment in which a work is placed is a metaphor.

(1.1) A. Rapoport,"Identity and Environment: A Cross‑Cultural Perspective" J.S. Duncan,

The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

"Housing and Identity" (1.1)Identity is communicated : 1.1.1. Internally to oneself or group; or to 1.1.2. Others

               The first often relies upon scale but can be expressed in other subtle environmental or non‑environmental ways. The second establishes boundaries between them and others and warrants greater clarity and legibility. In these the strength and redundancy of the message is paramount. There is a distinction between the two where the first asserts specific identity internally which to others may seem disorderly and have negative connotations. Metaphors utilize contextual components exhibiting their character through composers whom we can know by perceiving the internal identity. If the identity of a group is known by outsiders who one can communicate membership by known cues. If the identity is unknown then "place- identity" communicates "social-identity" and becomes vitally important. Cues and metaphors communicate because they are experienced directly and can be translated by the urge to be as placing something in the center, on the periphery or askew can draw attention to a building. This unique placement with our attention to it makes something be.

(1.1) A. Rapoport,"Identity and Environment: A Cross‑Cultural Perspective "J.S. Duncan, "Housing and Identity"

The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

                 Environmental cues act as 1mnemonics, reminding both us and them about the nature of the settings; their meanings; the behavior appropriate to them; and, hence about the identity of the occupants of such settings. (Rapoport, "Definition of the situation"; Rapoport, Cultural origins of settlements. Rapoport, "Vernacular architecture") Metaphors are mnemonical instantly linking the common experience of its assembler with its reader. The reader remembers commonalities with the metaphor maker's experience of the past and the time in which he perceived the cues. Environmental cues expressed as metaphors are culture‑specific which is why communicating identity to oneself, internally, is much easier than doing so to others, externally. The built environment is an agent to transmit culture. Culture being that which has already been cultured or grown in us. Communicating becomes a confirmation process by which identity is stabilized and co‑dependency nurtured. It is people communicating to each other what they already know. Not new information but existing information. The alien in a metaphor is introduced in terms of the familiar. One takes on the identity of the other: the essence common to both is the common understanding of readers and composers. The metaphor exudes their common identity because of both its' strange and familiar components. 1. mnemonics : mimneskes thai : to remember; intended to assist memory

     The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

         (1.2)The successful use of environmental elements in communicating the intended identity (the metaphor intended) depends on the cues being noticed (depending on the media, materials, scale, etc.) and on the intended receivers being able first to notice and then to decode and understand the codes. The metaphor talks about one thing (that is strange) in terms of another (that is familiar). (1.2)In social circles, status for one may be achieved through group‑oriented consumption such as by attending parties; while for another individualistic consumption of consumer goods through "fancy housing". One may tout tradition, antiques, and heirlooms while the other modernity, uniqueness and power. To both, architecture is a metaphor of their place in society. The house for the modern group takes on greater importance because it is a fixed object where new people enter in what is otherwise a changing world. (1.2)"The house, its' address and its' facade, as well as its' interior, affirm one's status in the eyes of strangers. Such objects which can be regularly displayed but not consumed are the most useful". (1.2)"In collective groups, status is achieved primarily through group‑oriented consumption and display. The house as a private, non‑group object which cannot fulfil this role: hence it is rare in such groups to see much architectural or artistic elaboration of the private house. Such elaboration is common, however, in collective men's houses, for here the elaboration is for the benefit of the group.

              (1.2) J.S. Duncan "From containers of women to status symbol : The impact of social structure on the meaning of the house".

       The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

          (1.3)Carl Jung's and Clare Cooper's ("The house as symbol of the self") belief is that their is a universal unconscious linking man to his primitive past, and in which are deposited certain basic and timeless modes of psychic energy which are termed archetypes. A symbol is the manifestation of the unconscious archetype in the here and now of space and time. The self is the most basic of archetypes of which the "house" it its' frequent symbol. In any case the urge to extrapolate beyond fine and applied art to architectural metaphors is based on the truths of these observations and assumptions: that their seems to be a universal need for a "house"-form in which the self and family unit can be "seen" as separate, unique, private and protected. The archetype and the symbol, themselves static are locked into a constant relationship. The metaphor is a dynamic interfacing of both the "house" and the "reader" with both there cosmic and parochial identity and relationship to all other things. Things that may be beyond their context yet judged in the specific parochial environment. The "house" is a symbol of the archetype of the self that has changed little through space and time. (1.3)"This place's undue restrictions and the variety of meanings that the home may have for any individual, and the meaning, somehow becomes intrinsic to the object that functions as a symbol". (1.3)Objectivism is considered to be anthropologically necessary and refers to the process by which man embodies his subjectivity in objects. It is inevitable that men and women will invest objects of their making with qualities of themselves and consider them to be expressive of themselves".

(1.2) J.S. Duncan "From containers of women to status symbol: The impact of social structure on the meaning of the house". (1.3) G. (Gerry) Pratt, "The house as an expression of social worlds" in J.S. Duncan, "Housing and Identity"

 The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

            They are the metaphors of their metaphoric experience with the components of their context. They are endowed with what man has become. The metaphor as an expression is concrete and incarnates man's accomplishments. The person can know what he or she is because of the material they project into their world. Without this material certainty what they know remains obscure, private and fleeting : just a thought that comes and goes depending upon the person's own effort to perpetuate. But once manifested the person can change his or her mind while the object of their earlier thought monumentalizes their nature and the complexity of their history. On the other hand the person can forget what he or she has created and allow it to act back upon them. They then become separated from the world as it's alien : they are alienated. 1Reification is linked to alienation, for it is the process by which man, having forgotten the human sources of products such as ideas, values or concrete objects, views them as objective things (outside of themselves) and allows them to dominate. The created rules the creator. Absurd but true . Metaphors can be our link with creativity or obscurity depending on the composer. If the composer utilizes symbols, icons, language, forms, shapes, space and scale impersonally and out of the person's own context the metaphors they create are imitations and as "empty tin cans" communicate noise and dissonance. Empty experiences yield meaningless metaphors.

(1.2) J.S. Duncan "From containers of women to status symbol: the impact of social structure on the meaning of the house". (1.3) G.Pratt "The house as an expression of social world" in J.S. Duncan, "Housing and Identity" 1. res : thing ‑ more at real : to regard (something abstract) as material or concrete thing.

       The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors

             "Reifications occurs when an object is no longer considered to be a specific expression of another's or one's own life but becomes instead a quality that seems to characterize the other's or oneself in a typical and anonymous manner". The metaphor transforms,changes, carries‑over, bridges and transfers. "No longer is the object an expression of the person; the person is defined as the embodiment of an abstract quality of which the object is a symbol. "Metametaphor changes the metaphor to apply it broadly to wide and varied contexts. The concept whereby the external world can be transformed into a personal archetype. The archetype then is the model which can exude variations and be the residue of person's experience. The metaphors the person creates are the remnants of their affair with the instruments, systems and subjects they orchestrates.

Bibliography: 1. James S. Duncan, "Housing and Identity" (Cross-Cultural Perspectives) Groom Haln Ltd 2-10 St. John's Road, London SW11; ISBN 0-7099-0322-7. (1.1) AMOS Rapoport,"Identity and Environment: A Cross‑Cultural Perspective". (1.2) J.S. Duncan "From containers of women to status symbol : The impact of social structure on the meaning of the house". (1.3) Gerry Pratt, "The house as an expression of social worlds".

      The Significance of Architecture As The Making of Metaphors Researched Publications:

Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs":

Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University

1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.

2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.

3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture

4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on Academia.edu since 2008

5. "The Metametaphor of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997

6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993

7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994

8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994

9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.

10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995

11."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995

12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland

13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993

14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne

15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010

16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197

17. "Metaphors and Architecture." ArchNet.org. October, 2009.at MIT

18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”; University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture.

19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section

20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten; http://reconstruction.eserver.org/;

21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j2632623064r5ljk/ Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103. 22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010) 23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87. 24. “The soverign built metaphor”: monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011

25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”:The Book; Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK

Lecture: http://globaluniversity.academia.edu/BarieFezBarringten/Books/1449761/Architecture_The_Making_Of_Metaphors  

 

 

Web Site: The significance of architecture:the making of metaphors



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