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The Metametaphor of Architectural Education
by Barie Fez-Barringten   
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Last edited: Tuesday, November 20, 2012
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Twenty-first century education of architects is further challenged by new markets, users and contractual situations and whole countries and civilizations which here-to-fore had little or no need for professional architectural services as practiced in already industrialized and developed nations.
Further to this is the impact of a long lasting world-wide recession and slowed economies which has produced fewer employment opportunities, and with it pessimistic prospects for graduating architects. Students today need even more care and concern to better prepare them for these "creative" opportunities.
This monograph embraces some of the best minds "education" has known for guidance and direction. Our new generation of architectural educational planners will need perspective, theme, direction and purpose with which to discuss the many details of programs and curriculums.Published:The metametaphor theorem"
Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.

The Metametaphor(c) of Architectural Education(c)copyright

By Barie Fez-Barringten:

Associate Professor: Global University

www.bariefez-barringten.com

bariefezbarringten.gmail.com

Abstract

                  Twenty-first century education of architects is further challenged by new markets, users and contractual situations and whole countries and civilizations which here-to-fore had little or no need for professional architectural services as practiced in already industrialized and developed nations. Further to this is the impact of a long lasting world-wide recession and slowed economies which has produced fewer employment opportunities, and with it pessimistic prospects for graduating architects. Students today need even more care and concern to better prepare them for these "creative" opportunities. This monograph embraces some of the best minds "education" has known for guidance and direction. Our new generation of architectural educational planners will need perspective, theme, direction and purpose with which to discuss the many details of programs and curriculums.

                     This monograph is particularly grateful to Max Wingo's 1974 work on the "Philosophies of education : an introduction" from the University of Michigan; Paul Nash's 1968 work on "Models of Man", Ozman and Craver's 1981 work "Philosophical Foundations of Education" Joseph P. Congemi's 1977: "Higher education and the development of self‑actualizing personalities; Reginald D.Archambault's 1965 work: "Philosophical analysis and education; Mehdi: Nakosteen;s 1965 work on "The history and philosophy of education; Solon T. Kimball's 1974 work on "Culture and the education process"; Murray G.Ross's 1976 "The University"; Brian V.Hill's 1973: "Education and the endangered Individual" and other works by Paul Weiss, William J. Gordon, and George Dodds.

                This monograph largely depends upon quotes and paraphrases from their reviews of John Dewey, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Immanuel Kant, Alfred North Whitehead, Brian F. Skinner, R.S. Peters, Walter Kaufman, P.H. Hirst, John Wilson, George Berkley, Martin Buber, Emil Brunner, Soren Kiekegard, Frederick Froebel, L.Joughin, , and their references to Saint Thomas, Aristotle and Plato. The vocabulary they provide will prove valuable to articulate applicable approaches. There are two matrix figures which summarize the basic positions of educational philosophies and the structure of the university related to the cognitive function. 1"Metametaphors" reveals that by including a variety of philosophies, ideas, concepts, 2 pedagogues, issues and concerns to the higher education of architects interactive and combinative qualities can be synthesized in a single cognate. We can see one thread running throughout history relevant to the architect we want to educate.

                 Additionally, architects and educators who are thrust into the precarious position of having to design, plan and generally emote architectural curricula usually carry out this charge in an isolated atmosphere. It is the intention of this monograph to promote metaphor's role in looking beyond one's own context to profit by anthers and with the attitude that an interdisciplinary approach can complement the singularly difficult and yet necessary task of architects, architectural educators and academics creating their own educational curriculum. This is both an age where interdisciplinary work is accepted but when the specialist and parochial interest are sought for short term gains. It is the task of makers of metaphors to look beyond their venues, context and socio/political context for the "good" of the advancement of architecture globally, their society and for the careers of the student body. To support an interdisciplinary approach our generation realizes that for every professional decision we make their are social, psychological, political, legal, economic, environmental, cultural, and artistic repercussions. Like the droplets in a pool of water each decision has a ripple effect where the sum of all ripples eventually culminate in waves. With an eye toward enhancing architectural specialist's work and re-inventing their own curriculum is this monograph dedicated. Certainly not to provide every answer to the many variables, but to suggest to learned men that their are others to help and assist. That while architecture is a very specialized profession, teaching it is in a family of philosophies, theories, curriculum, courses, and methodologies. That there are very palatable works available for assimilation into this creative goal. So this article presents these to make the strange familiar and talk about architectural education's other terms.The Metametaphor of Architectural Education

By Barie Fez-Barringten

Abstract

                       Twenty-first century education of architects is further challenged by new markets, users and contractual situations and whole countries and civilizations which here-to-fore had little or no need for professional architectural services as practiced in already industrialized and developed nations. Further to this is the impact of a long lasting world-wide recession and slowed economies which has produced fewer employment opportunities, and with it pessimistic prospects for graduating architects. Students today need even more care and concern to better prepare them for these "creative" opportunities. This monograph embraces some of the best minds "education" has known for guidance and direction. Our new generation of architectural educational planners will need perspective, theme, direction and purpose with which to discuss the many details of programs and curriculums.

                                This monograph is particularly grateful to Max Wingo's 1974 work on the "Philosophies of education : an introduction" from the University of Michigan; Paul Nash's 1968 work on "Models of Man", Ozman and Craver's 1981 work "Philosophical Foundations of Education" Joseph P. Congemi's 1977: "Higher education and the development of self‑actualizing personalities; Reginald D.Archambault's 1965 work: "Philosophical analysis and education; Mehdi: Nakosteen;s 1965 work on "The history and philosophy of education; Solon T. Kimball's 1974 work on "Culture and the education process"; Murray G.Ross's 1976 "The University"; Brian V.Hill's 1973: "Education and the endangered Individual" and other works by Paul Weiss, William J. Gordon, and George Dodds. This monograph largely depends upon quotes and paraphrases from their reviews of John Dewey, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Immanuel Kant, Alfred North Whitehead, Brian F. Skinner, R.S. Peters, Walter Kaufman, P.H. Hirst, John Wilson, George Berkley, Martin Buber, Emil Brunner, Soren Kiekegard, Frederick Froebel, L.Joughin, , and their references to Saint Thomas, Aristotle and Plato. The vocabulary they provide will prove valuable to articulate applicable approaches. There are two matrix figures which summarize the basic positions of educational philosophies and the structure of the university related to the cognitive function. 1"Metametaphors" reveals that by including a variety of philosophies, ideas, concepts, 2 pedagogues, issues and concerns to the higher education of architects interactive and combinative qualities can be synthesized in a single cognate. We can see one thread running throughout history relevant to the architect we want to educate. Additionally, architects and educators who are thrust into the precarious position of having to design, plan and generally emote architectural curriculums usually carry out this charge in an isolated atmosphere.

                    It is the intention of this monograph to promote metaphor's role in looking beyond one's own context to profit by anthers and with the attitude that an interdisciplinary approach can complement the singularly difficult and yet necessary task of architects, architectural educators and academics creating their own educational curriculum. This is both an age where interdisciplinary work is accepted but when the specialist and parochial interest are sought for short term gains. It is the task of makers of metaphors to look beyond their venues, context and socio/political context for the "good" of the advancement of architecture globally, their society and for the careers of the student body. To support an interdisciplinary approach our generation realizes that for every professional decision we make their are social, psychological, political, legal, economic, environmental, cultural, and artistic repercussions.

                         Like the droplets in a pool of water each decision has a ripple effect where the sum of all ripples eventually culminate in waves. With an eye toward enhancing architectural specialist's work and re-inventing their own curriculum is this monograph dedicated. Certainly not to provide every answer to the many variables, but to suggest to learned men that their are others to help and assist. That while architecture is a very specialized profession, teaching it is in a family of philosophies, theories, curriculum, courses, and methodologies. That there are very palatable works available for assimilation into this creative goal. So this article presents these to make the strange familiar and talk about architectural education's other terms. The Metametaphor of Architectural Education The education of an architect may be enhanced by the use of metametaphor. Architects are not born they are made. They become. They change from what they were to another. What they are naturally stays the same while something is added to what they are. It requires an acknowledgement of an emptiness in what already is, along with a wish to leave (or superimpose upon) that general person behind (subordinated) for yet another which is potentially within (with already existing talents, aptitudes, etc).

                    The education of an architect is more than a method or curriculum of courses for (superficial) knowledge. It is a process for 3 birthing a specific dimension of a person. Knowledge provides the "elevé" architect with context, goals and a scenario. But none of the knowledge nor new information would be personalized without a strong desire for a change in life from previous behavior. This is the key to receptivity and to the beginning of a basis to establish goals. Goals to fill what is acknowledged to be empty and aimless. But not just replacing one for another set of goals. But goals which are directed at being "the" architect. But why would a person who is in one circumstance want to add onto his life additional burdens, responsibility and accountability for architecture? The person must believe that there is potentially something that can fill him which he or she can serve to others, and that he or she can be equipped to care for the health, safety and welfare of the public. Before we can explain the use of metaphors in the education of architects and how metaphors may help in solving problems, creating design solutions or learning new information we must first begin at the root of what makes an architect and why a person would want to embark upon this effort. The Metametaphor Of Architectural Education In this explanation is yet another and most useful application of the metaphor and the one which will be the subject of this monograph. The use of the theorem of metametaphors as a tool to define, make and shape the identity of the architect. It is this metaphor upon which all else hinges.

                       The metaphor which relates a pre-student's potential receptivity to various trades, professions, arts, etc. including a decision to become an architect. It is not enough to be curious, but to sustain the search one must be 4 perennially hungry and find in architecture that context and domain of life's experience which channels growth. It is the media by which one's growth can take place and the context by which one can be raised and made active. It is the quintessential decision that dominates and then permeates all other aspects of life. The decision to become an architect is the essence of one's career as a living human being and it permeates everything else one does and says. It becomes the eyes though which one sees and the mission through which one serves. It is a calling and a commitment. It is not casual but all-consuming and vibrant. One can experience the built environment in basic ways and through that experience identify a self that seeks more after experience. Additionally, such experiences could also fill emotional, social or sensual needs.

                          There may be unanswered question, on just a sequence of physically sensible events. Becoming must involve a goal of what one wants to be and this is why the metametaphoric phenomena begins at the very initial stages of being. What does the 5phenomenon of metametaphors have to do with 6 becoming an architect. The metaphor is an instrument of transformation. The Metametaphor Of Architectural Education As we experience its' characteristics as a model, ideal, role and identity we adapt these characteristics as our own. They became personal through both catharsis and direct participation. From these we both become and know. We are aware of our change and gain confidence in our new identity. It is based not just upon our ideas, intentions or fantasy but on intimate first hand knowledge, skill and use. We directly perceive an architectural reality. It was there before, but we did not perceive it with intensity, completeness, comprehensiveness and depth. We not only know, but we know that we know. It is a high level of cognition based on recognition because of direct contact which convinces us to discern its' truth. (Wingo, G.M., pg.24)")Education always takes place within a certain constellation of cultural conditions" and therefore it cannot be only studied as a set of universal and independent 1phenomena. Some set of relations among education, politics, and social institutions is inevitable and cannot be ignored in any useful analysis. Yet it is our catharsis (elimination of natural emotions by bringing it to consciousness and affording its' expression) of all but architecture, while including them in our development as a person in other roles which is part of becoming an architect. There is an inbred tensional relationship between the studies of the humanities in one direction and engineering toward the other where both are incorporated into architecture. Metaphor: Metaphors help us to be better students, educators, teachers, administrators, faculty and professors. It is the mutual basis upon which our natural collective 7 vision is based. We both differ and agree on just about everything at one or another level. The Metametaphor Of Architectural Education

                           Architectural metaphors incorporate the past, history, laws, ordinances, science, art humanities, and architects along with their compositions. It is educators who experience, select and serve components of the metaphor for the students to 8assimilate. The two are in metaphor : the originators and the receivers (the teachers and students). The students look to educators, not only for information but for selecting the topics, scope and context of the information. The student is from an ordinary natural, social, paternal and psychologically integrated context. In some way he or she desires to be separated from that context. The student participates in the Hegelian process of change in which the student's concept of life (or its realization) passes over, is preserved and fulfilled by its contradictions through the 9 stages of: ideas. This is what students brings to architectural education : their thesis in the natural which must then be superseded and recast as an anti-thesis. This experience then produces the synthesis of his or her new identity as an architect. 1. thesis 2. anti-thesis 3. syn thesis The metaphor juxtaposes opposed and contradictory ideas, seeking to resolve their conflict through an experience.(Nash, P.) The man or woman who "knows" can teach and therefore artists can teach whereas men or women of mere experience cannot.

                   The perceptions we have of our experiences became the metaphor students can perceive. Teaching therefore is inherently metaphoric, being that which can be learned by one from another. Itself is a bridge which transforms and enlightens. It is a welcome "friend-making" phenomena. Education and metaphor can be both nouns and verbs. As nouns they are products and as verbs they are process. They both, like music, link two elements of a composition. But each has its own known context: education has schools, metaphors have literature. It is in the metamorphic form of the metaphor do we find parallels between education and architecture. When we look at commonalities of ideas and not the natural differences of technique, means and methods. Architects are perinianial and inherently educators. It is a dimension in their relationship of service as surrogate-agent to a client. Architects compose metaphors from observing clients needs into what is called "programs". These compositions (first program, then designs, finally contract documents) needs to be approved and accepted before a contractor can carry out "the work" for the owner. The graphic, oral, written and three-dimensional presentation is designed to show the client how his needs are met by the architect's design.

                  This presentation must persuade or condition the client to feel and believe that he or she can accept the architect's metaphor as desirable. To do this the architect's presentation must communicate information about the clients needs, necessities, wishes, desires, likes, preferences, inclinations, conveniences, welfare and interest. The client must trust the composition. The metaphor must talk about the architecture in terms of the client. The 10strange must be made familiar. The student architect learns also how to use metaphors to make metaphors in order to profess about his metaphors. Metaphor involves two apparently unrelated phenomenon and can be inclusive to two seemingly desperate views of order and control of the universe around us.(Dewey,J) That "realism" and "idealism" is neither totally in the mind nor totally objective and external, but that human reality is composed of both individuality and environment. It is not a one way but reciprocal movement. Experience is both "of" and "in" nature. ( Dewey, J. (1859 - 1952)., "

                              Nature consists of stones, plants, diseases, social conditions, enjoyments and sufferings". Dewey held that genuine thought begins with a "problematic situation", a block or hitch to the ongoing stream of experience. In encountering these blocks, consciousness is brought to focus, and one is made more actively aware of the situation. It is in dealing with these real problems, Dewey, argued that the creative intelligence is capable of development. Dewey was greatly influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrick Hegel (1770 - 1831) not for his speculative ultimates but for ( Dewey, J. (1859 - 1952).,pg.90)his observations about the "growing, developing, dynamic nature of life". He was additionally influenced by ( Dewey, J. (1859 - 1952).,pg.91)Charles Sanders Pierce (1839-1914) for his "practical consequences of ideas".

Metaphor:

1. is composed of at least one alien and one familiar element;

2. talks about one element in terms of the other;

3. makes the strange familiar;

4. has elements that are apparently unrelated;

5. is a mechanism of change and transformation;

6. has an essence common to both;

7. has reciprocal components which affect each other;

8. is identifiable and provides us with identity;

9. is experienced first by its' composer;

10 exudes;

11. contains a message;

12. communicates over time, space and context; and,

13. is limited and specific The role of Philosophy: (Archambault, R.D pg.53-55)"The philosopher, as philosopher, is no more concerned with the utterance of educational aims than he is with the purely technical problem of teaching purblind children to read". If the philosopher has a role in education it is with aporia (difficult) kind of problems which cannot be met by any of the rules appropriate to the special sciences. It is the solution which can be demonstrated by a lessening (lusis) of the difficulty where a useful service has been done. "Analysis might well lead to the erasure of a systematically confusing vocabulary in educational theory". (Griffiths, A. P. pg.189)In order to consider issues pertaining to the "value" of an activity rather than its' "mean" we ask "meta" questions about the logic, epistemological status, and justification of value judgements. We look to and beyond the 11archetype metaphor (or its literary application) to its' wider application to all the arts including architecture. We also can analyze education itself as an art and see in it our expanded scope to apply metaphor's characteristics to both enhance our analysis and truly review the two parallel artistic professions of architecture and education. We can by the "meta" approach, the metaphoric analogies and reciprocities between the two. (Griffiths, A. P. pg.196)Even indoctrinating qualified architects into the roles of educators in a university requires help not merely instruction. "They possess reciprocity in the highest degree". This is just as true for students. Both are students in this adaptation. Both will have to have the aprior knowledge refuted as they challenge the context, the field of education, etc. Ultimately the architectural student will be a kind of educator. (Archambault, R.D., pg.15)"Doing" philosophy involves analyzing and clarifying concepts and the language in which ideas are expressed. It is possible that students may be both studying what philosophers have said and doing philosophy. (Wingo, G. M., pg.18)We can 1deduce from general (basic) ideas certain principles for education. "Educational philosophy as deduction from philosophical premises". The metaphor is the vehicle which conveys from one to another context. We understand commonalities and differences by perceiving the terms, structure, material, operation, components, elements, parts and interactions within the metaphor. (Wingo, G. M., pg.355)Philosophers can contribute to the reconstruction of education by applying the techniques of analysis of language to current educational discourse. Metametaphor is one approach to such an analysis being itself in the context of language and communication The educator's metaphor operates between ( Ozman, H.A. and Craver, S.M)., ideas and practical activity. The two are reciprocal, good ideas can change into good practices and good practices can transform bad ideas to good ones. In metaphor they transform oneanother. Metametaphors and philosophy in general provide an (Ozman, H.A., and Craver, S.M) understanding of thinking processes and the nature of ideas, the language we use to describe education and how these may interact with practical affairs. For the educator, philosophy is not simply a professional tool but a way of improving the quality of life because it helps us gain a wider and deeper perspective on human existence and the world around us". Culturing: (Kimball, S.T.)

                          Values and value formation are a consequence of the activities of individuals within a social setting. The meanings of things, activities and relationships are variable, arise out of participation, and affirmed in successive and repetitive events. Canons of discrimination are a way to evaluate and order experience. They govern the responses of individuals to their experience. They govern the responses of individuals to their experience. The individual not only identifies the items that came into his sensory and cognatic orbit but responds to them in a predictable fashion, based upon his criteria of evaluation. He or she has been taught how to think, act, and feel and to do so differentially because of the situational nature of learning. Each culture, tradition and heritage has its own set of social processes and these are incorporated into their metaphors. The very fact that infants and growing children require care is evidence that man is receptive to culturing. The faculty, facility, program, and curriculum all together are the elements of the metaphor. Becoming an Architect: (Heidegger, M. (1889‑1976) 158)Heidegger's major category of investigation was "being", where his main starting point was what he called "being‑in‑the‑world, or lived experience at the individual‑environment (world) level. The individual existent is "Dasein". While Heidegger's intent and purpose is to investigate "being", his analysis largely rests on the individual constructing his own world of meaning. Therefore, we can see that the student can become an architect via the experience of elements of his environment. "The student" metaphors into a product who can be read. What we read is that dimension of the individual that has become, his or her "being": the metaphor. That common essence to the elements and his trials.

                       For Heidegger this is the "Umwelt" (the surrounding environment). Not only the objective extent world, but the one which has been 1personalized. Thus the "metaphor experience" conditions the architect, culturing and transforming him or her to "be" the essence of what he or she experienced. It is a mimeses and metamorphosis. It is metametaphor of becoming an architect out of all the kaos of what the individual otherwise would be. The metaphor translates, transforms and changes. But for this to take place the individual becomes aware of him or herself (knows, and knows that he or she knows) as a distinct and subjective existent ("eigenwelt"). "I must decide, for this life is mine and no one else's". "To be authentic and affirm that "I am", an individual must face the truth as he is able to discover it, live life in the face of death, and construct his meaning as a human by committing himself to authenticity". This condition lies at the heart of an individual's crises of identity, and with this acknowledgement the basis upon which he or she can begin to experience the environment. Art can be the experience by which individuals meet this crisis and the metaphor is the birth of that identity. This is when the individual becomes the architect. consciousness (essence common to both) after the every- day world (elements in the metaphor) has been discounted. This leaves certain essential features of who we are. This is what we have become. Ultimately the student must add to his or her role as user, audience, beneficiary, consumer and operator to the student's new dimension as creator, composer, maker and architect. He or she does not stop being sibling, parent, spouse, citizen, etc. but 12 transcends these in favor of taking responsibility for the "architectural" time and place. It is the student's instinctive use of metaphors where the student, "the familiar", juxtaposes him or herself with "the alien" (architectural profession) to begin the metaphoric process of 13 transformation. Architecture is the essence common to both. The "extent" in the architecture and the potential in the student. Both are apparently unrelated by different times, places, contexts and experiences. The student is the attentive systematic observer of what architecture exudes. In this role he or she subordinates other roles to the role of architect. It is more than that; those other roles must also be transformed by the predominance of the potential of architecture in them. For most this experience is so profound and exemplary that its strength and depth prevails over other dimensions of a student's life: his or her character and personality. It does so because this experience is more well thought out and perceived.

                   The elevé (the one being elevated) will "carry‑over" themes and concepts from architecture in his or her role as sibling, parent, etc. He or she will also look to see the ways in which architecture's essences can modify and enlarge his or her roles in other contexts. Because the content and process of what the student is learning he or she learns subjectively and not objectively. Architecture is recreating itself again a new in him or her. In so far as he or she permits he or she becomes the architect of his or her 14dreams. Without a rekindling of the immediacy, zeal and primacy of the architectural burden societies may ultimately have no architecture, but 15 paradigms of other professions which do take personal responsibility. Immanual Kant says (Kant, I. (1724‑1804)(Nature and objective reality, is a causal continuum, a world connected in space and time with its' own internal order". The "subjective mind cannot perceive this order in itself or in totality for when the subjective mind is conscious of something, it is not the thing‑in‑itself (das Ding an sich). The mind is conscious of the experience of the phenomenon of the thing‑in‑itself. The thing‑in‑itself is the noumenon". Each experience of a thing (phenomenon) is one small additional piece of knowledge about the total thing (noumenon). Thus, all we know is the content of experience. When we go beyond this, we have entered into the rationalist argument, into speculation and the ultimate or noumenal reality of things‑in‑themselves, or else we have become engaged in moral and ethical considerations". Therefore, in Kants terms we can only become architects through perceived and understood experience which accumulates into an ethereal composite (metaphor) which on its own is our reality. It is all we know. (Wingo, G.M pg. 337)This kind of knowing versus the principle that ideas are innate in the individual. That we are already architects, brain surgeons, astronauts, etc. Ideas exist in the soul, but to be known they require being brought into consciousness is the assumption of Socrates'. Knowing is therefore a process of recollection in which the direct transmission of information can play no part at all. Knowing is the apprehension of what is already in the soul, and what is in the soul is abstractions. We communicate that which the other person already knows. Communication is a kind of affirmation and awakening. It is in this domain that best utilizes extent metaphors which speaks about one thing in terms of another, reifies and translates the strange to the familiar. (Gordon, W.J., )Most adults have lost the spontaneous capacity to use metaphorical forms ‑ a capacity which all children exhibit before they develop their analytic faculties. The educational process should foster rather than suppress the use of metaphor. It is in this way that students apply what is learned from classes in history, structures and drafting to the design studio. In another way we can explain that the 16 education of an architect is in fact the making of a 17 metaphor.

                      But what is that metaphor when it is a person? We know that the physical nature is the same but are there another (a surrogate) to suggest a likeness between them. An object, activity, or idea treated as a metaphor. Becoming experience: We will find metaphor's important contributions to architectural education in its' characteristics as a model, ideal, 19mimesis, goal, emblem, sign, role, identity, and vehicle. (Dodds, G.) The student's urge is toward both a 19mimesis (transformation that reveals an ideal) of imitation and speculation. On one hand the student looks to recreate and internalize external experience and knowledge held by others, while on the other hand he or she is being formed into a condition where he too will be a source of knowledge and information. In this way learning architecture is a profoundly 20heuristic act requiring a keen sense of perception fostered by receptivity and sensitivity. The student must first be in touch with him or herself and his or her own feelings, emotions and thoughts. He or she must have a dialogue with him or herself in order to 21read what is revealed through his or her own efforts. Additionally, the student must perceive the metaphors of the lives of other architects; what they think, their goals, theories, concepts and what conditioned their professional life. Paralleling this, the student must also perceive architectural works related to specific architects, contexts (time, place, situation, etc) and theories. The student must see works completed in the past and present and those being prepared for the future. The student must also be exposed to issues and theories of architecture and related fields to develop a perceptual framework into which to include his or her experiences and upon which to carry out his or her own work. If, as we have seen that architectural experiences yield architectural knowing then one of architectural educator's concerns must he to best define architectural experiences. It is also in this realm that differences and ambiguities exist.

                         These differences are partly exacerbated by an increasingly academically oriented, but professionally inexperienced faculty which focus on state-of-the art research and educational processes. It is not the intention of this statement to devaluate these concerns but to rather suggest that by what metaphors are exhibited before students so they become. Further to this crisis of defining architectural experience is the opposite, where practitioners have genuinely different and opposing views of professional educational needs and necessities. Yearly, conferences and seminars try to evaluate professional business trends, new client types, new client consultant-contractor relationships, new building types and from these inference what should be the architect's revised and legitimate role. Architects are collectively concerned so as to be able to evaluate altering conventional practice, reorient personal requirements, re-train personal, re-direct marketing efforts, modify contractual forms, reevaluate expensive errors and omissions insurance, re-locate or set up branches in new areas and penetrate into new areas of opportunity or prevent others from taking away what they perceive should be their architectural business. While educators discuss metametaphors in academic settings, practitioners are experiencing architectural creation and its' modifications. These modifications and variations are the additional elements which architectural educational planners can consider in analyzing new curriculums. Consideration may result in some major structural changes to one extreme to merely adding some components into the existing curriculum. Their are educators who would argue against this kind of relevance and response advocating that the academy is there to set standards and itself define the profession. In either case the resulting metaphors are based on decisions about experience and its' utilization. (Cargem, J.P pg.xii) The self‑actualizing student internalizes his or her knowledge and forms his or her own synthesis into general principles which can be recalled after the facts are forgotten. To quote (Whitehead, A.N) Whitehead says Cargem, "the essential course of reasoning is to generalize what is particular, and then do particularize what is general. Without generality there is no reasoning, without concreteness there is no importance". The architect "is in" the metaphor he or she creates, but as its' creator, is not him or herself the metaphor.

                   It is all of him or her that ever experienced, learned, knew and became the architect. All the rest is excluded. The metaphor and the architect have a reciprocal relationship. The metaphor on the other hand is in the architect and exists because it was first known by the architect as a result of his or her experience with the common essence and the apparently unrelated elements. Perceiving the metaphor is knowing the architect while creating the metaphor is knowing the user. (Dewey,J)Thus, the artist engages in his work until he achieves the desired end. The artist is not only the creator but also the perceiver. "However, Dewey did not believe that art and aesthetic experiences are to be left only to the professional artist. Everyone (including architects and users) is capable of achieving and enjoying aesthetic experiences provided that creative intelligence is developed through education. Therefore, art (nor architecture) need not be the possession of the few but available to everyone and can be applied to the ordinary activities of life". (Dewey, J. (1859-1952), Dewey believed that the truly aesthetic experience is one where the person is unified with his activity. It is an experience that is so engaging and fulfilling that there is no conscious distinction of self and object in it; the two are so fully integrated that such distinctions are not needed. In short, an aesthetic experience is one in which the contributions of both the individual and the environment,or the internal and the external are in harmony: the "consummatory experience"; the experience that provides unity and completeness. "This is human experience at its highest". This is wherein the student becomes an architect by experiencing all the thoughts about being an architect. This "consummatory experience" is the metaphor wherein unity and completion interact.

                    This is why, like the Greeks, thought Dewey, all can project art into all human activities. This is why education is also an art. Why it too is the making of metaphors and is metaphoric. (Skinner, B.F. (1904 ‑ 1992 ) pg.197)The externalized metaphor and the experience to create the metaphor are 22symbiotic. When we really came to know it (personal awareness), what we know will not be essentially different from external objects. Content will be knowledge of the behavior and contingencies of reinforcements. We are a complex system behaving in lawful observable ways. We are both controller and controlled. We are our own makers. Our identity evolves through a cultural process that we have largely created. Our environment is contrived or chosen and consists of significant contingencies of reinforcement (of status, identity and positioning metaphors) that makes us human. "In this respect we may say that we are our own makers, and while we are doing the making, we are being made or we are in the making". Mind: (Peters, B.S) pg.102)No person is born with a mind; for the development of mind marks a series of individual and societal achievements. It is learned step by step through a variety of exposures, experiences and initiations into public traditions enshrined in a public language, which it took our remote ancestors centuries to develop".

                       (Weiss, P) "In addition to the past of the individual artist", says Paul Weiss, and the past of the art itself, there is also the past of society, civilization and culture. The arts of today are in part a function of what we have gone through and of what the past has been". The creative aspect of the metaphor is its' dynamism which relates the past to the present. A metaphor may bring the past forward directly, or it may distort or negate it, but it is always a usage, a manipulation, of what has gone before in terms of the present. (Hirst, P.H)., A person is more than pure mind, yet mind is his or her essential distinguishing characteristic, and it in terms of knowledge that his or her whole life is rightly directed. "From the knowledge of mere particulars to that of pure being, all knowledge has its' place in a comprehensive and harmonious scheme, the pattern of which is formed is knowledge is developed in apprehending reality in its' many different manifestations". Society desires the mind of the individual to be developed around skills, talents, character, etc. Deciding for the knowledge of architecture sets ones path toward that aspect of all possible reality. The relevance of discussing this is to reinstate this mutual commitment back into places of higher education. (Wilson, J) The student has continually to be referred back to his or her own experience, and has to move back and forth from the felt reality of that experience of the unknown skills and knowledge that will help him or her to make sense of and generalize from it. For literature, what the student needs as a human being is, amongst other things, to be able to feel characters and situations in literature as real and relevant to himself, and to be able to express himself, to understand, and to be understood, both orally and on paper : to be able to write and to be able to talk.

                              The student experiences his subjective metaphor and the metaphor of society. As an architectural student, between his or her's own experiences of the environment with those of users, potential clients, public and factors common to all human beings. Factors of proportion, dimension, scale, color, texture, light volume, mass, solids, voids, form, function, etc. The student's experience with these factors over a period of "educational time" is the measure by which he or she became (did become) an architect. (George B. (1685‑1753) "All existence is dependent on some mind to know it, and if there are no minds, then for all intents and purposes nothing would exist unless it is perceived by the mind of God. There is no existence without perception, but things may exist in the sense that they are perceived by God. We can only know things as we consciously conceive them, and when we think of the universe existing before finite minds can conceive it, we are led to assume the existence of an omnipresent mind lasting through all time and eternity". (Nakosteen, M) To the 23idealist, the mind has an existence of its own independent of the environment but stimulated by it. It is an existence above the laws of physics and chemistry; it is a reality above the reality of nature. The mind is governed by its' own laws, lives its' own life in accordance with these laws, and expresses itself in aesthetic, religious, mystical, speculation and social channels being always guided by its' own principles, using the environment as a tool or channel of expression rather than its' source. It is this very mind which the student architect wishes "metaphored" from one to another model. He or she has perceived the "architectural mind" and wants to change his or her mind from its' general state to the architectural. The brain, the student knows, is the instrument of the mind and not its' generator. It is its' servant and not its' master. It is its' medium and not its' essence. The mind has retrospective powers ‑ it can look within. It has prospective powers ‑ it can look ahead. It has aesthetic powers ‑ it can recreate itself in the beautiful. It has the synaptic ability to make the strange familiar and synapse.

                It lives in its' ability to convert a meaningless external world into a meaningful internal world connected and synthesized. To the idealistic educator, the mind generates of itself and within itself. The educator tries to awaken his or her student's minds by inspiring them through his or her's personality and handling of classroom activities. It is to cause the contact of one mind with another leading to discovery, analysis and synthesis; to the realization of the powers of the mind through creative efforts; to the development of understanding and appreciation, to growth and maturity, to intellectual development and spiritual experience. Particularly for architectural education emphases is on the laws of learning than the things learned. Architects make metaphors and what ever is learned must awaken this ability. Interest is the very essence of good education. Since people develop from within, it is not what we do for and to the student, but what the student does for and to him or herself that is of paramount importance. Interest is a trancendatal power as genuinely a part of humanity as is humanity itself. The student exudes metaphors in a free, purposeful atmosphere where he achieves inner satisfaction. Architectural educational planners therefore, must assume the high ground of ideas and concepts by which to plan curriculums and formulate educational policy. To Make the Man: ( J.V. McGlynn, Du Magistro, Deveritate) pg.249)The purpose of education is "to make a man or a woman", and the means by which this is done is the exercise of the individual's own powers. The art of teaching, therefore is the art of stimulating and directing the activity of these powers so that they are developed and perfected. Metaphor is that dimension of "man" which is "made" and the architect is that kind of "man" the student wants to be. Educators don't make a man or woman. This is a result of nature's biological functions but we know the metaphor to be about a different kind of 1making. ( J.V. McGlynn, Du Magistro, Deveritate) pg.250)The art of teaching, therefore, is the process of converting the natural powers of reason from potential to actuality. According to Saint Thomas the potency of the human intellect is of the same kind as the power of the body to heal itself; that is, knowledge exists in the learner in the sense of active potentiality. If this were not true , people would not be able to gain knowledge for themselves without the help of another person. Men can gain knowledge for themselves, through discovery without the help of another though a process of natural reason". The other way of learning is through the process of instruction.

                    Both involve the teacher. Both are metaphoric and use metaphors. When we uncover the hidden elements of our experience we expose sight of our efforts. Student architects discover their talents and the results of study. This happens from instruction by others or from the experience of analysis, study, experimentation, trial, error, drafting, calculations, etc. When students are taught to be architects they are guided to turn to themselves and external standards through exercises which engraft the metaphor of "architect". If architectural education today has any one major negative it is to know the man which is to be made. Is it the man of yesterday, today or tomorrow.? What are the specifics of tomorrow which would best employ the graduating architects and what are the other general things by which he could adopt to the unknowns. Therefore, its choosing the components of the metaphoric antecedents of any one vector which present the problem. Its also being relevant to graduation which can also motivate, encourage and endue students with a sense of commitment. (Congemi, J.P) pg.xiii)1Self‑actualization is concerned with "man's" concept of reality, truth and values. (Frechtman, B., pg.321)"Man" is whatever he or she conceives themselves to be, and whatever they may become is whatever they "will" themselves to become". Said Satre, "Man" is nothing else but what he or she makes of him or herself. Such is the first principle of existentialism. Man or woman is both free and responsible for what he or she chooses to become. The external metaphors which surround any potential student engender a call for a commitment to that part of the whole of all society to which he or she will be accountable. It must match with his or her experience and potential capacity, capability and aptitude to accept this burden. Once chosen and qualified for the task he or she can then begin to change, transform and transfer from his or her general to specific identity. This presumes that man or woman is in possession of his or her identity and that he or she has character and personality apart from his or her professional state of mind. (K. Marks and F. Engels) The production of ideas, conceptions, and consciousness is at first directly interwoven with the material activity and the material intercourse of persons : the language of real life. Conceiving, thinking, and the mental state of persons appear at this stage as the direct efflux (passage) of their material behavior. Persons are the producers of their conceptions and ideas. Real, active persons are conditioned by a definite development of their productive forces and of the intercourse corresponding to these up to its' furthest forms. Consciousness can never be anything else than conscious existence and this existence is their actual life‑process. It is a metaphor formed, not from a common essence, but from a collection of differences which have a common essence. Architect's educational curriculum and teaching methodologies that respond to this reality will let a student bring his or her cultural and social experience to bear upon his or her learning of architecture. (Brunner, E) Man possesses the freedom to make choices where it is in fact in choosing that he lives. (Kaufman, W) "Man" is differentiated from other entities because he or she knows that he or she exists; indeed he or she knows that he or she knows he or she exists".... "Self is a "desired, constituted relation" arising from the interaction of body and spirit". (Whitehead, A.N) Cognition is the emergence into some measure of "individualized reality" of the general substratum of activity, poising before itself possibility, actuality and purpose. An architectural student will promote realities of architectural identity and therefore need ways in which this can be expressed. (Buber, M) pg.442)The perception of a human being as a unique whole unity is opposed to an analyzed, reduced and abstracted being. Derivations tend to contract the manifold person, supposing it can grasp what a man or woman has become into a general concept. The personal life is leveled down in favor of brevity and external control. The metaphor which can "imagine the real" is truly the way in which one can be stirred by another. Not by less but more detail. "Man" in all his or her concreteness. To group all people's perceptions must also include their spirit. The education of an architect is to recognize the fullness of the student and what must be brought from one to another state of development. Not just a part but the whole person. The metaphor of the curriculum must permit a teacher to "bring‑out" the compassion, spirit and empathy of a student. Both must experience the content of knowledge and expose it through 26"techne". (Buber, M) Pg 454)It demands of the educator reactions which cannot be prepared beforehand. It demands nothing of what is past. It demands presence and responsibility; it demands 24"personage". Buber calls it great character when one, who by his actions and attitudes, satisfies the claim of situations out of a deep readiness to respond with his or her whole life, and in such a way that the sum of his or her actions and attitudes expresses at the same time the unity of his or her being in its willingness to accept responsibility. As his or her being is unity, the unity of accepted responsibility, his or her active life, too, coheres into unity. This is the metametaphor of becoming an architect. The metamorphosis from person to student, student to architect, architect to teacher and teacher to student. Each reifies its' elements and transforms the person at each role. The being becomes and makes his or her experience concrete. The metaphor as an Ideal: In another way architects become professionals by conforming to the technical and ethical standards of architecture. (Kant I. (1724‑1804), The child", says Kant, "should learn to act according to 25"maxims", the reasonableness of which he is able to see for himself". 25"Maxims" ought to originate in the human being as such". "Character consists in readiness to act in accordance with "25maxims". (Nakosteen, M.)"Metaphors and similes were often employed by Jesus in picturesque and poetic expressions of moral ideals and religious concepts. Sometimes these were used in the body of a parable as a figure of speech, but one may find them usually in his formal talks with crowds". (Nakosteen) According to Kant "apriori" knowledge is totally independent of experience and cannot be known by "man". If we had not experienced extension between objects or duration from event to event, we could never have arrived at a concept of time and space, no matter how universal these concepts appear to us in maturity. Yet knowledge must be the basis for metaphor and synapse. We can make the unexperienced which is unknown, known because the unknown has property (ies) of the known (and vice versa). It is reasonable, yet can be beyond reason when perceived. Classroom teaching must constantly give common- sensical familiar examples for exotic unfamiliar new behavior. (Wilson, J) All these human skills (e.g. research, perception, discernment, etc) are, in a sense, techniques for becoming aware of the human self; and communication is essential because it is each individual student's own self to which he or she must become aware. Becoming the metaphor of the architect involves 26technique which in turn reveals perceptions of our experience in a form which can both first communicate to the composer and then to others. (users, audience, readers, etc.) (Dewey, J) John Dewey believed that the image is the great instrument of instruction. What a child gets out of any subject presented to him or her is simply the images which he or she himself forms with regard to it. Not : "one picture is worth a thousand words". The student is the one who creates the metaphor composed of exercises of the elements of the learning experience. Dewey believed that the work of instruction would be facilitated if more time were spent in seeing to it that the child was forming proper images. Students of architecture reify their concepts into concrete images. Architectural students make their own pictures. Thus can the information being assimilated be seen and understood. It is how both the student and the architect experience the information, form metaphors, and reveal the architecture. Education is a personal experience: 27Existentialists assert that a good education would encourage individuals to ask such questions as, who am I? Where am I going? Why am I here? (Ozman, H.A., and Craver, S.M)., It is the Aristotelian notion that we can understand our place in the universe (a function of the metaphor), and this understanding is a result of sharpening our powers of intellect through the use of metaphors, reason and observation. But which metaphors to choose and what to observe and reason. This is where choice and even casual conditioning enters as accident or rationally controlled destiny. Whichever it is, the individual recognizes his need, experience and commits himself to a path of "feeding" to became an architect. This is a metametaphor process. (3.0, (Ozman, H. A and Craver, S. M pg.168)"The first step in any education, then, is to understand ourselves". (Ozman, H. A and Craver, S. M pg.169)"Existentialists argue that education should promote a sense of involvement in life though action. They believe that persons should be encouraged to be committed and take stands even through the rational basis of any stand is always incomplete. They believe more in deeds than words". "Through experience man learns" perhaps best sums up the lessons learned from the classics and the basis of the metametaphor-birth of architectural identity. Educators, students, administrators and faculty share and convey this common experience. It is what is professed and exuded. The function of education to becoming: Kiekegard encouraged (Kierkegard, S. (1813‑1855)pg.156)the subjective individual who makes his own choices, eschewing the scientific demand for objective proof. "He believed that the individual is confronted with the choices in life, that he or she alone can make and for which he or she must accept complete 28responsibility". (Peters, R.S) pg.97)Plato's image of education as turning the eye of the soul outwards towards the light explains that although there are truths to be grasped and standards to be achieved, which are public objects of desire, he claimed that coercing people into seeing them or trying to imprint them on wax‑like minds was both psychologically unsound and morally base. Objective standards need to be written into the content of education. The individual commitment and his or her relationship to the objective civil order is a part of that special metaphor which makes up architects, lawyers, governors, etc. Likewise the extent of control by the state, society or universities of higher education upon the an individual can be balanced by the individual's own initiative, motivation, receptivity and commitment. The individual and his society are part of a common context which is the metaphor they both experience and they wish experienced, replicated and developed. The student of architecture commits him or herself to do what he or she cannot do for himself: to become an architect. That which is external to him or her before must now become internal. (Nakosteen, M) Education, therefore, from "without" replaces self‑education because Most men and women left to themselves are incapable of the art of 29happiness. From this point of approach, education becomes a regulating force and should demand the most engaging duty of the state. Happiness is not a social reality. Although it functions in society, its' realization is centered in the individual. It is a habit of mind and the final aim of education and of the state, (even the university). It should be the happiness of the individual. If happiness has a social function it is that through it alone can "man" achieve individual perfection (virtue, ethical, nature, responsible, etc.). They can become the metaphor which is external to them and by being receptive to it can allow themselves to be transformed and brought‑over to it. (Kimball, S.T) Ethical ideas came from experience of things which comes from the study of natural science, mathematics and social intercourse, which necessitates the study of "man" including history, language, literature politics, art, economics and science. What we call "faculties" such as imagination, reasoning, memory, etc. are in truth metaphoric formations within the individual caused by presentations from the social and physical world. The contact with the world sets off sense activity which perceives metaphors. Memory is the reproduction of a series of metaphoric precepts previously formed by sense activity. Imagination is the rebuilding of picture worlds, metaphors and hopes in the mind from the metaphoric material that has been presented to it from the external natural world. The external natural world is the raw material of imagination and the elements of metaphors. The metaphor is the 30 essence of education because it is a transformer, bridge and works by carrying-over things from one to another form, person or context. Students learn with metaphors about metaphors to make metaphors. Ultimately they learn how to reproduce the approach they have experienced. They then profess and exude this to others. They are both the metaphor of their experience and the prototype for 31emulation. (Kimball, S.T) Our type of civilization needs persons with the capacity for seeking relationships and dynamics of systems. This is why the educational process which cultivates the metaphoric process does more to prepare its' graduates than teaching "information" only. It is a skill and easily adapts to a wide range of conditions. Architects change clients, building types, contexts, venues, employers, etc. This is not a task that can be done on one's own and is an appropriate role for higher education. The experience the student has in the university is usually his first experience in a corporately organized system and the faculty represents "the other world". The success with which he masters his school environment‑ in other words, internalizes its' learnings ‑ foretells, in most cases, the degree of success the student architect will master in the public adult environment. It may be now the time to revive the education of architects. To bring back again these values, goals and ideals which were the vigor and life of education to be applied specifically to higher education and architectural education in particular. We can learn from art education and educational philosophy. (Dewey, J. ) pg.110)Article three of Dewey's pedagogic creed reiterates that education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience; that the process and the goal of education are one and the same. The Role of the Educator: At the root of (Gordon, W.J.J.) synectics : the metaphoric way of knowing is a 1maieutic approach to the degree of responsibility, control and dynamic between student and teacher. (Skinner, W.F ) pg.2.27) Maieutic practices are one answer to how much help (or intervention) the teacher should give the student as he acquires new forms of behavior. One approach is that the teacher should wait for the student to respond rather than rush to tell him or her what he is to do or say. "The more the teacher teaches, the less the student learns". The behavior to which a person has given birth grows, and it may be guided or trained as a growing plant is trained. Behavior may be "cultivated". The metaphor is particularly at home in education".," There are many metaphoric analogies to horticulture. "Kinder garten" is one. This is a place where the child develops until he reaches maturity with little teaching intervention. Guidance is a key to many other forms of assisted development such as psychotherapy, economic growth, governance, etc. Such a metaphor involves a balance of human relations between student and teacher: between the degree of receptivity, responsibility, commitment, control, intervention and guidance. It is a game of 32 "T.A.G.": trust, authority and guidance played first within and individual, then with his teacher, then client, users, audience etc. It is the art of making metaphors which we emulate and exude. ( Froebel, F.), pg.10)The renowned German educator, Frederick Froebel, founder of the above mentioned "kindergarten" metaphor (metaphoric analogy) likened the healthy development of the human organism to the healthy development of young plants. It is the function of education to evoke and develop freedom and to induce self‑determination. There is an inner essence and ever-present identity in all relationships in life. The individual must be given the opportunity to develop both his individuality and his or her human nature. "Man" has potential and this potential must be nurtured through various stages. (Wingo, G.M ) pg.60)The role of 33teaching is essentially the transmission of a body of knowledge and values, accompanied by certain intellectual skills. The task is to transmit the essential elements of the cultural heritage. The teacher is the mediator between the historic accumulation of culture and the generation that must perpetuate that accumulation. However, from the standpoint of the individual, the purpose (Wingo, G.M ) pg.53) of education is to help him or her achieve intellectual discipline. The aims of education is intellectual training for the individual through rigorous application of the mind to the historic subject matter. This process, the 34essentialist maintains, and only this, is worthy to be called the purpose of education. The individual, in a sense becomes the metaphor of the metaphor by which he or she is transformed. He and she not only learns about their cultural heritage but experience being cultured by their heritage and therefore as the beings of what they have experienced now personally incorporate their education. From their experience with their teacher they experience the culture. The teacher is the medium by which this metamorphosis takes place. The student need not, according to this doctrine, experience for him or herself the culturing because he or she already has prior knowledge of his or her heritage. It is only to be known and brought out of what the student already knows. (Wingo, G.M ) pg 60). This is a conservative view which advocates: a) Schools should be limited to their educational function; b) Not all subjects are worthy to be taught; c) Schools should cherish and transmit certain traditional values and must be neutral; and d) Schools play a role in society with traditional relations between the schools and other institutions. (Kandel, I. L) pg.61)"On the other hand Issac Kandel, the educational conservative says that the school is the instrument for maintaining existing social orders and for helping to build new social orders when the public has decided on them; but it does not create them. In the same sense that society is prior to the individual, the social order is prior to the school". The book's author adds that if Kandall had added to this statement "knowledge is prior to the knower", he would have produced the best "nutshell" definition of essentialism in the English language. (Ozman, H.A., and Craver, S.M) pg.74)The key problem with essentialist doctrine is that people do differ greatly in their ability to learn abstract material. Since no body at present knows how to alter significantly the genetic equipment of individuals, and this narrows the range in learning ability, schools are full of low or non‑achievers. This is different in most schools of higher education and particularly architectural and art education. (Kandel, I.L) pg.81)The conservative tradition in education emphasizes transmission of facts by the teacher and absorbed by the pupils. The student therefore, does not experience the making of the metaphor but the metaphor itself as an audience, reader or perceptor. It is highly cognitive and the individual cannot adopt his apriori metaphors to those of the schools. (Ross, M.P.) Professors: 1. Encourages the free pursuit of learning in his students, 2. projects best scholarly standards of architecture, 3. demonstrates respect for the student and individual, 4. demonstrates respect of the student as an individual, 5. adheres to his or her proper role as intellectual guide and counsellor, 6. assures that his evaluation of students reflects their true merit, 7. respects confidential nature of the relationship between professor and student, 8. avoids exploitation of students for his or her private advantage and acknowledges significant assistance from them; and, 9. protects their academic freedom. Footnotes: 1Metametametaphor : Meta : more comprehensive than metaphor as it is applied to literature but designates a new but related theorem designed to deal critically with the original metaphor; particularly its application to all the arts, and especially architecture. A transcending inclusive vehicle. 2 pedagogy : the art, science, or profession of teaching; esp : education. leader ; to lead; Agent : teacher, schoolmaster. 3 birth : to bring, forth, to give rise to; originate. 4 perennialists and perenialism is a relatively recent term in educational thought, its roots can be traced back to classical antiquity. They stress the superiority of mind and matter and promote a cognitive approach to education - one that stresses thinking, and particularly philosophical thinking as its primary goal. There is an affinity with Plato who stressed ideas as the only true reality. 5 phenomenon : an observable fact; an aspect known through the senses rather than by thought or nonsensuous intuition; 6 be + cumam : to come into existence; to undergo change or development, to appear; originate "to come into ones own": to achieve one's potential. 7 visio, visus : to see: wit imagination, conceiving: revelation, a manifestation to the senses of something immaterial. 8 assimulare : to make similar : ad + similare : simulate (copy, represent, to assume the outward qualities) imitate (mimesis) assume: can be a sham, counterfeit or feinted pretense. 9 the laws of dialectical materialism. 10 strange : the clients needs, once familiar, have now been transformed, reified and concretised into another form. It is this new form which is now unfamiliar. *"Synectics : The metaphoric way of knowing" is the title of the book by W.J. Gordon and "synectics" may now be found in the dictionary. To bring forth (as techne and education). Metaphors and education are synectic. 11. archetype : the original metaphora transfers and bears by terms carrying one idea in place of another suggesting likeness and analogy but also transforming. This is the original pattern or mode : of which all things of the same type are copies or representations. It is derived from the collective experience of natural cognitive man. 12 transcendere : to climb across (trans (across) + scamdere (climb). To rise above or go beyond limits. To triumph over the negative or restrictive aspects of all roles. 13 . trans (prefix): tra : across, beyond through, so as to change. To go on the other side. So as to change or transfer. . 14 dream : to consider as a possibility. A visionary creation of the imagination, vision. A strongly desired goal or purpose. Something that fully satisfies a wishes : Ideal. 15 para : (beside, alongside, with) + deiknynai to show: an example of a conjugation or declension showing a metaphor in all its other forms (inflections, etc.). 16 educere : to lead forth: "to bring‑out"; to develop mentally, morally, or aesthetically by instruction. deduction : deduce : to lead away from. To infer from a general principle. Infer : to carry or bring into: bear. To derive as a conclusion from the perception of the parts and whole of a metaphor. 17 metapherein : metaphora : to transfer, to bear (experience, carry, suffer) a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of other changes? Studies have shown that there are differences in life styles between professionals and non‑professionals and within professions; differences from one to another. And the differences pertain to being set-apart from society and committed to 1profess. 18 professes : profiteri : confess: pro(before) fateri (to acknowledge) to declare openly; affirm. 19 mimesis : imitation, mimicry, simulate, copy 20 heuristisch : to discover; I have found; serving as an aid to learning, discovering, or problem‑solving by experimental and the trial‑and‑error method. It is exploratory and self‑educating. One learns from one's own experience. It is primary 21 read an : to advise, reason, calculate; to receive the sense of experience; to learn; understand; comprehend; interpret our own performance; decode: (to read the coded information). 22 Symbiosis : live together: a cooperative relationship between two seemingly dissimilar elements to each others mutual benefit : mutualism. 23 Idealism claims that the universe is a manifestation of supreme spirit intelligence or will depending on the idealist position, and that the phenomenal world of things and expression is a derivative or extension of this universal essence. Educationally, it maintains that, though man's struggles and endeavors are in part efforts of reciprocal adjustment to a natural and social environment, his ultimate aim is to control this environment and his own energies and employ them in the development of those potentialities within him. These of course, are in harmony with God who created all of us. 24 personage: a human individual : person : one distinguished for presence and personal power. personalis : being conscious of one's self. Self, human. individual. An individual's temporary behavior or character. The union of elements (body, emotions, thoughts, sensations) that constitute the individuality and identity of a person. This is what the self has become and is a metaphor composite of a cognating human being. 1phenomenology : (Husserl, E). to go back to the things themselves", 25. Make : Mahhon :to prepare, behave, act. To cause to happen or be experienced by someone. To cause to exist or appear. To bring into being by forming shaping or altering. Compose. As making a metaphor To put together from components. To form and hold in the mind. Establish, fashion, and shape 25 maximus: great/much : a general truth, fundamental (high) principle. An essence in a metaphor. 26 techne: art, craft artificial, devised by art, a body of technical methods. A method of accomplishing a desired aim. 26 technologia : method of achieving a practical purpose. The totality of the means employed to provide objects. techne : reveals whatever does not bring itself forth. Technology is a way of revealing (7.0)Heidegger, "The Question Concerning Technology 27 existentialism : (1930) a chiefly twentieth century philosophical movement embracing diverse doctrines but centering on analysis of individual existence in an unfathomable universe and the plight of the individual who must assume ultimate responsibility for his acts of free will without any certain knowledge of what is right or wrong or good or bad. 28 responsible : liable to be called upon to answer. Able to answer for one's conduct and obligations. Able to choose for oneself between right and wrong. Accountable. Implies holding a specific office duty or trust. Such as that of an architect. 29 Happiness : for Socrates it is the goal of life. It is a waste to search for it in the stars. The first requirements of individual happiness are to return to one's inner self and to understand one's essence. "Gnothi seauton": Know thyself. 30 esse : to be; is. The permanent (constant) as contrasted with the accidental (variable) element of being. The individual, real, or ultimate nature of thing especially as opposed to its existence. Its basic attributes. 31 emulate : aemulus : strive to equal or excel. Imitate : etiology : a branch of knowledge concerned with the causes of particular phenomena e.g. what is the cause and origin of a metaphor? 32. Phillip Winters, New York city, 1970 for the "Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments" (L.M.E.) Inc. 33 maievtikos : Midwifery; relating to the Socratic method of eliciting new ideas from another. 34. essentialism : (1927)An educational theory that ideas and skills basic to a culture be taught to all alike by time‑tested methods. Compatible with a philosophical theory ascribing ultimate reality to essence embodied in a thing perceptible to the senses. This as opposed to "nominalism" (the theory that only individuals and no abstract entities (as essences, classes propositions) exist.

                                 Essentialism is a basis for metaphors and metametaphors for without essences there can be no metaphors. Works Cited: Archambault, Reginald D, "Philosophical analysis and education" London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, New York : The Humanities Press (1965). Berkley, George, (1685 ‑ 1753) "The Principles of Human Knowledge" Brunner, Emil, (1813‑1855) "The Message of Suren Kierkegoard". Neue Schwezer Rundshau, Vol. 38, 1930, pg.29). Sφren Kierkegoard 1813‑1855). Buber, Martin, "Elements of the Inter‑Human" (1965) translated by R.G. Snoth in "The Knowledge of Man", New York. Cangemi, Joseph P, "Higher Education and the Development of Self‑Actualizing Personalities"(1977, New York) The Philosophical Library. *Quotations differ from one to the other source (2.1 and 3.8) Dewey, John, "My Pedagogic Creed", The School Journal, Vol. LIV, No.3 (Jan. 16, 1892 pg.77‑80) (also see 3.8 below) Dewey, John, (1859‑1952) "Essays in Experimental logic", "Experience and Nature", "Art as Experience", "Experience and Education", "In Human Nature and Conduct" Dewey, John, "My Pedagogic Creed", The School Journal 54: 3 (Jan 16, 1867) pp. 77‑80, Reported with the permission of the Center for Dewey Studies, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (also,see 2.1 above) Dodds, George, "On the place of Architectural Speculation" (JAE) Journal of Architectural Education, November 1992 Vol. 46/ Number 2 published by Butterworth‑Heinemann for the (ACSA), Association of the Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Inc. Frechtman, Bernard, "Existentialism" (New York, Philosophical Library, 1947 pg.13) Gordon, W.J, "The metaphoric way of Knowing" Griffiths, A. Phillips, "A deduction of Universities" (The essence of education : section) Heidegger, Martin, (1889‑1976), "Being and time" (Seinunndzeit) pub. 1927. Hirst, Paul H, "Liberal education and the Nature of Knowledge" Hill, Brian V, "Education and the Educated Individual" (A Critique of the thinkers) 1973. Teachers College Press, Columbia University. Husserl, Edmond, Kandel, Issac L., Can the School build a new social order", Kandelpian Review 12 (January 1893, Educational Conservative). Kant, Immanuel, (1724 ‑ 1804) "Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason" Kaufman, Walter, "The Owl and the Nightingale: from Shakespeare to Existentialism", London, Faber and Faber, 1959 p.169,)(pg. 26). Kierkegard, Soren, (1813‑ 1855) Kimball, Solon T, "Culture and the Educative Process" (An Anthopological Perspective) 1974. Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York. McGlynn, J.V., "Du Magistro, Deveritate" ("The teacher-the mind") S.J. Saint Thomas (Chicago : Henry Regnery Co. 1959) Marks, K. and F.Engels, "The German Ideology", Harper and Row. Nash Paul, "Models of Man" (Explorations in the Western Educational tradition") (1968) J.Willey and Sons, Inc. New York. Nakosteen, Mehdi, "The History and Philosophy of Education" (1965) Ronald Press, New York. "Bible": Matt 12: 11‑12, 12 : 22-28, 17 : 20, 18 : 1‑6, 19 : 14, 19 : 24; Mark 10: 14, 10 : 25, Luke 12 : 22‑28.1.maximus : great/much : a general truth, fundamental (high) principle. An essence in a metaphor. Ozman, Howard A and Craver, Samuel M., "Philosophical Foundations of Education" (1976). Charles E Merrill Publishing Co. Columbus, Ohio. Peters, R.S, "Education as Initiation" Skinner, B.F., (1904‑present), "Beyond Freedom and Dignity" *Quotations differ from one to the other source (2.1 and 3.8) Weiss, Paul, "The metaphorical process" Whitehead, Alfred North ; "The aims of education", The Free press, New York, 1957, pg. 169. Whitehead, Alfred North,"Science and the Modern World" p. 153. Wilson, John, "Two types of teachers" Wingo, G.Max, "Philosophies of Education : An Introduction" (1974) U.S.A./Canada, D.C. Heath and Company. Non-cited references: "Main currents in Modern thought" (Sept‑Oct, 1971), Vol. 28, No.2 Connell, W.F., "A History of Education in the Twentieth Century World" Fraguere Gabriel.,"Education without Frontiers" Curti, Nelle., "The Social ideas of American Educators"; Littlefield, Adams and Co. Totons, N.J. Charles Schribner & Sons (1935). Amason, Robert E.,"Contemporary Educational Theory"; Longman, New York (1972). · Dewey, John., "Democracy and Education"; The Fall Press/McMillan Pub. Co., (1916). · Bandman, Bertran., "The Place of Reason in Education"; Ohio State University Press (1967) · Ross, Murray, G, "The University" (The Anatomy of Academic), (1976) · · McGraw‑Hill, New York. Researched Publications: Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs": Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University 1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York. 2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York. 3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture 4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on Academia.edu since 2008 5. "The Metametaphor of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997 6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993 7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994 8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994 9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University. 10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995 11."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995 12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland 13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993 14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne 15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010 16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197 17. "Metaphors and Architecture." ArchNet.org. October, 2009.at MIT 18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”; University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture. 19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section 20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten; http://reconstruction.eserver.org/; 21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j2632623064r5ljk/ Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103. 22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010) 23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87. 24. “The soverign built metaphor”: monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011 25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”:The Book; Contract to publish: 2011 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK 

 

 

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