The cases involving crime scene DNA testing are very complex, and can be defined as material that governs inheritance of eye color, hair color, stature, bone density and many other biological factors that make up any one individual.
DNA PROFILING,which is also called DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting, is a technique that is primarily done by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals on the basis of their respective Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)profiles.
When conducting criminal investigations, Deoxyribonucleic acid is used to in identifying remains, providing a record of a particular persons presence in a particular place, and many times, ownership of items such as clothing.
There are two types of Deoxyribonucleic acid testing that is used in criminal and non-criminal investigations:
1. Mitochondrial DNA
2. Y- STR DNA
Crime scene DNA is considered as anything that is biological, such as blood, semen/sperm, hair, tissue, bones, organs, tooth pulp, bodily secretions, saliva, sweat, urine and fingernails.
Crime Scene DNA evidence can be found virtually anywhere because;
1. Humans constantly shed DNA.
2. There are over 3,000,000,000,000 cells in the human body.
3. Only approximately 100 cells are needed to obtain a DNA profile.
4. If it's biological, then the potential for DNA evidence is there.
DNA testing is also provides a variety of family relationship test for use in different situations. Some clients may wish to confirm their biological relationship to an alleged fathers family if the potential father is unavailable for a paternity test. Others may need to verify family relationships in an immigration or adoption case.
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