An excerpt from the forthcoming book by Gary R. Varner, Creatures in the Mist: Little People, WIld Men and Spirit Beings Around the World.
“Man's best friend.” Three simple words to describe the most familiar of humankind’s animal companions. The domesticated dog is found in every nook and cranny on the earth, from Polynesia to New Guinea to deepest Africa and Australia to the North Pole. Perhaps it is this deep felt relationship with the dog that is responsible for another aspect of the canine-human tie. The dog is one of the oldest and most powerful of the shaman’s spirit helpers as well as one of the most feared supernatural entities in the world.
Dogs apparently were the most favored of sacrificial animals; recall that the hound is associated with the Wild Huntsman and the journey to the Underworld. As J.C. Cooper notes, “having been a companion in life it continues as such after death and intercedes and interprets between the dead and the gods of the underworld.” (1) In fact during the 1800’s in India and the Middle East it was customary to bring a dog to the bedside of an individual in the process of dying “in order that the soul may be sure of a prompt escort” (2) to the land of the dead. In addition, dogs were sacred to the Goddess Hecate, herself a ruler of the Underworld, and were often sacrificed to her. In India, the God of the Dead, Yama, had two dogs, each with four eyes. (3) Dogs were often depicted as the guardians of the Underworld because, says White, “the dog’s place lies between one world and another.” (4)
To the Celts, the dog was especially esteemed and was used many times in mythology and was incorporated into the names of Celtic Gods. The 200-foot deep well at Muntham Court, in Sussex had numerous dog skeletons as well as a “votive” leg, made from clay, indicating that the well was valued for its healing properties. In other wells, such as Coventina’s, dog figurines were given to the well instead of actual animals. Dogs in early Celtic society were symbolic of both healing and death. These two symbolic aspects are reflective moreover, of the dogs’ representation of rebirth and their sacrifice to wells, pits and ritual shafts is fitting.
Dogs were a food source in Hawaii in addition to providing raw materials for fishhooks, jewelry and utensils. Dogs, like pigs, were both regarded as pets and as food. Titcomb notes that dogs were also suitable offerings for female deities. “Dogs were especially appropriate as offerings to the mo’o gods,” she writes, ”spirits that lived in the water.” (5)
Hutton and Merrifield note that dogs were frequently sacrificed to wells at the time of the termination of the well’s use—especially during the Roman occupation of Britain. A pair of dogs was sacrificed at Farnworth in Gloucestershire during the 4th century C.E., two in Southwark dated to the 3rd century and eight pairs in a well in Surrey (along with red-deer antler, two complete dishes and a broken flagon). (6) A recent excavation at an ancient well at Shiptonthorpe in Yorkshire uncovered a number of dog skulls as well as the remains of bundles of mistletoe. Because mistletoe was so important in Druidic rites, this well may have been an important ritual site.
Other dog sacrifices have been found in Holland, Germany and among Scandinavian Viking-age ship burials as well as in smaller individual graves, and in America. Davidson notes, “the most elaborate [dog sacrifice] example being from Mannhagen in Holland, where the skulls of twelve dogs were found with the skull of a horse and that of a man.” (7) Contemporary dog sacrifice continues in Africa. Mbiti tells us “Every fortnight Yoruba blacksmiths sacrifice dogs to Ogun the divinity of iron and war.” (8) The Iroquoise sacrificed white dogs, believing that the dead dogs spirit could intercede on their behalf with the Iroquoise gods.
Dogs were valued as healing agents also and it is interesting that the use of dog skulls to rub ointment on the swollen legs of horses and cattle continued into 17th century France. This method of healing was thought to be even more effective if the local priest had blessed the skull beforehand. (9)
Images of dogs have been painted on ancient vases found in eastern Europe guarding the Tree of Life as well as on others appearing alongside images of caterpillars signifying both death and rebirth. As previously indicated dogs also guard the land of the dead and, as the Egyptian god, Anubis acts as the guide of souls to the Underworld. This concept is also present in the folklore of the Yupa Indians who inhabit areas between Columbia and Venezuela. According to anthropologist Johannes Wilbert, “the dog plays a vital part in guiding the dead to the next world, and to mistreat a dog would condemn its owner to wander for eternity somewhere between earth and ‘heaven’”. (10)
An ancient tale from New Ireland in the New Guinea chain says that dogs were originally a race of dwarfs “who were said to be very strong and active,” (11) and whom the residents greatly feared. These dwarfs walked erect, ran very fast, and killed men that they overtook. Some of the Islanders cooked breadfruit seeds and laid them across the pathways that the dwarfs usually used, causing them to burn their feet and fall to their hands. According to legend, they were forever unable to walk erect again.
The dog has been regarded as the guardian and keeper of the passageway between our physical world and that of the Underworld. The dog, often seen as a guardian of Underworld treasures, in reality is guardian of the secret knowledge of death and resurrection. As Anubis the dog is the attendant of the dead and the soul guide to the land of spirit. The dog is associated with the messenger gods as well as those gods of destruction. The dog, however, has another aspect as well. Dogs are often placed in the company of Mother Goddesses and healers. Dogs, like cats, were regarded as witches’ familiars and, as Cooper tells us, “represent witches as rain-makers, hence ‘raining cats and dogs.’” (12)
Various age-old tales exist concerning dogs and their supernatural characteristics. A Gypsy belief said that if a dog digs a big hole in your garden, there will be a death in the family. The Radfords offer some anecdotal evidence in support of this belief in the way of some mail that they received:
“About 40 years ago,” he wrote,“ I was told by a gipsy that when a dog digs a big hole in your garden, there will be a death in the family. Last week [February 1945] a dog came in my garden and dug a big hole. I filled it in, but he came again and dug it out. Next day, my brother-in-law’s father died. I have not seen the dog since.” (13)
To the indigenous people of Japan, the Ainu, dogs were felt to have the ability to detect ghosts. This psychic ability will not be disputed by very many around the world who believe the same thing. Dogs especially among animals seem to have the power to “observe” spirit manifestations.
Dogs have also been linked to healing as well as death. Illnesses were “transferred” to dogs by placing a hair from the ill person between two slices of bread and butter and feeding it to a dog. The dog would catch the cough, measles or whopping cough and the person would recover soon after.
In Holland, the ancient role of dogs in healing has been well documented. In two areas of Holland along the Rhine River, discoveries of ancient altars to the Mother Goddess Nehalennia have been found. One site, uncovered in 1647 on the Isle of Walcheren and the other discovered in 1970 on the East Scheldt Estuary, contain 120 altars, some in depths of over 80 feet. Evidently, these altars are the remains of a temple dating back to 200 CE, which sank into the sea. Nehalennia was a domestic goddess that had an impressive following. In fact, both the Romans and Gauls adopted her into their pantheon.
Nehalennia invariably appears accompanied with dogs. While mother goddesses do appear with dogs, Nehalennia is pictured with them so often that she is compared to the goddess Epona who is considered a horse-goddess because she is always shown with them. “The symbolism of the dog,” according to Miranda Green, “is important here: if we use the mythology of the Graeco-Roman world, the beast could represent either healing or death, both of which are functions of the mothers.” (14)
Nehalennia is considered a goddess of the sea and protector of fishermen and seamen. This is obvious in that altars that were dedicated at her temple were put there by these sea-going men—given in thanks for her protection. Other gods and goddess often shown with dogs are Diana, Aesculapius (god of healing), Cerberus, Sucellus and Nodens. Nodens actually appears as a dog as his zoomorphic attribute.
Numerous small Mother Goddess figurines have been found in England, Gaul and the Rhineland, which represent fertility and prosperity. According to Davidson, the Goddesses carry fruit, baskets, bunches of grapes, bread and/or eggs. They also have a babe at their breasts or a small dog as a companion. While normally found in threes near rivers, springs or temples, four were found together in London in 1977. (15)
The association with dogs and healing is an ancient one. In Mesopotamia, the sitting dog was used as a divine symbol from the Old Babylonian period through the Neo-Babylonian age (1950 BCE through 539 BCE). Various inscriptions have been found over the years that identify the sitting dog figure “as the symbol of Gula, goddess of healing” (16) and patron of doctors. Several dog figurines have been discovered inside a temple dedicated to Gula in Babylon and another found was dedicated to the Sumerian equivalent of Gula, called Ninisina (known then as “the great doctor of the black-headed”, meaning “of the human beings”). Images of the dog were also commonly utilized as protective amulets in Assyria and Babylon. “Groups of five clay figurines of dogs painted different colours were prescribed as foundation deposits for either side of a gateway,” report Black and Green. “Bronze dog figurines are in the same period usually found in groups of seven…Whether they were magically protective or dedicatory or served some other purpose is unclear.” (17)
Dogs are also considered one of the were-animal species. The Yuman Indians regarded dogs as “people” and would not eat dogs for that reason. In Scotland, it was believed that children were occasionally transformed into white dogs by evil magicians and could only be restored to their human form by striking them with a magic wand or dressing them in shirts made of “bog-cotton”. (18)
Perhaps one of the most intriguing legends associated with dogs is that of the Black Dog. An almost universal tale, the Black Dog is truly a supernatural creature and is associated with sorcery, death and the damned. This bit of lore knows no boundaries—being common in Britain and the United States both among indigenous and the dominant Euro-American cultures. Most of the tales speak of a rather nondescript, sometimes large black dog that haunts certain areas—never leaving prints even in the snow. One such story is that of the Black Dog of West Peak, or Black Pond in the hills of central Connecticut. Legend has it that the dog, appearing as a “short-haired, sad-eyed…beast of vague spaniel ancestry” (19) with friendly ways spells doom for any person who sees it three times. The legends say, “if a man shall meet the Black Dog once, it shall be for joy; and if twice, it shall be for sorrow; and the third time, he shall die.” (20) Accounts of savage and ghostly Black Dogs have been recorded in England as far back as 1577, often resulting in human fatalities.
Legends of mysterious black dogs also populate the lore of Native Americans. These dogs are some of the many localized supernatural beings, which are always present but normally only seen when tragedy or disaster is imminent. One such account tells of two elderly women who went to a water hole to gather juniper berries, “one of the women saw a big, black dog and thought it a sheepherder’s dog. ‘It went down the rock into the water below and wasn’t seen again’”. (21)
Like the Black Dog of West Peak, an old Kawaiisu story relates how “old timers saw lots of dog there, but there were no tracks.” (22)
Black Dogs have the reputation of being a number of creatures, from simply “dogs” to the ghosts of humans, demons and harbingers of doom. A fifteenth century German manuscript says “the Devil will come in the form of a black dog and will answer all questions.” (23)
In addition, while not all of the legends place these apparitions near water, a great many of them are tied to wells, ponds and lakes and the bridges and entryways to these bodies of water. Folklorist Katherine Briggs, referencing Theo Brown's article in the September 1958 issue of Folk-Lore, divides reports of Black Dogs into three categories:
1. A shape-shifting demon, called the Barguest,
2. A black dog about calf-size, normally described as shaggy and intensely black; and
3. Black dogs which appear at certain times of the year in a calendar-cycle. (24)
Some stories of Black Dogs regard them as guardian dogs, which reportedly have protected lonely travelers. Researcher Katy Jordan describes these dogs as "usually associated with a particular stretch of road, or a stream, or places of transition like gateways or parish boundaries. They are essentially non-aggressive, kindly and protective beasts, whose role seems to be either to patrol or guard the boundary or road that is their 'beat', or to protect and guide travellers home." (25)
It is this form of Black Dog that is normally associated with water sites. We may draw a few conclusions as to why they are seen, at least in the British Isles. Dogs were frequently sacrificed to wells at the time of the termination of a well’s use—especially during the Roman occupation of Britain. A pair of dogs was sacrificed at Farnworth in Gloucestershire during the 4th century C.E., two in Southwark dated to the 3rd century and eight pairs in a well in Surrey (along with red-deer antler, two complete dishes and a broken flagon). A recent excavation at an ancient well at Shiptonthorpe in Yorkshire uncovered a number of dog skulls as well as the remains of bundles of mistletoe. Because mistletoe was so important in Druidic rites, this well may have been an important ritual site. A well located near an untouched tomb on Cyprus in the cemetery of the ancient Greek harbor city of Bamboula, has recently yielded a discovery of three-dozen dog skeletons. (26) A pottery shard was also found in the same well with a relief depicting two men and two bulls. The reason for the presence of the dogs is unknown however, the similarities between this Greek well and those found in Britain is striking. If there is a common reason for the dog burials or sacrifices in these wells it would indicate a common tradition or ritual belief dating from, at least, the 13th century BCE through the 3rd century CE.
It is believed that one reason for sacrificing dogs was to provide eternal “guardians of place”. (27) The fact that many are seen near gateways and bridges would indicate that these animals are, as spirit helpers, fulfilling that intent. These explanations do not address those mysterious Black Dogs seen in the United States, however guardian dogs are common in shamanic lore all over the world as guardians and guides to the Otherworld.
Bob Trubshaw wrote, "few myths have such world-wide parallels. We are left with the distinct impression that dogs have been protecting the ways to the Otherworld back into the origins of human beliefs." (28)
Other animals are also associated with wells, water sources, and the connection between the world of the living and the Otherworld where the dead and other creatures of mystery reside. White cattle, stags and hounds are some of those denizens of the Underworld. Like the Black Dogs the Kawaiisu also have stories about white dogs, which frequent sacred waters. Zigmond wrote about one such occurrence:
“Near Paiute Ranch there is a spring where the water used to come out of the ground like a fountain. There were lots of reeds growing there and so it was called ‘by the reed-water’. A white dog lived there. Old timers saw him lying off to one side. ‘Maybe he lived in the water.’” (29)
Dogs played an important role in Meso-American lore as guides for the souls of the dead to the Underworld. Alexander wrote, in his somewhat “Noble Savage” account of the journey of the soul to its final resting place, “…the perils of the Underworld Way were to be passed, and the soul to arrive before Mictlantecutli, whence after four years he should fare onward until, by the aid of his dog, sacrificed at his grave, he should pass over the Ninefold Stream, and thence, hound with master, enter into the eternal house of the dead…” (30)
W.Y. Evans-Wentz interviewed an Irish man from Galway during the early years of 1900 that spoke of a “fairy dog”:
“…Steven pointed to a rocky knoll in a field not far from his home, and said:--‘I saw a dog with a white ring around his neck by that hill there, and the oldest men round Galway have seen him too, for he has been here for one hundred years or more. He is a dog of the good people, and only appears at certain times of the night.” (31)
On the Isle of Man, the Fairy Dog was called the Moddey Doo (also known as the “Mauthe Doog”)—Manx for “Black Dog”. However, it has also been described as “white as driven snow”. (32)
Tales of fairy dogs seem to contradict other stories of dogs being the enemy of fairies, mermaids and demons, “especially cave-haunting demons.” (33) “In the folk-stories of Scotland,” wrote MacKenzie, “dogs help human beings to attack and overcome supernatural beings.” (34)
However, the Fairy did in fact, have their pet dogs too. Called cu sith which means “fairy dog” they acted as guides to the fairy land and to the Underworld. They can be differentiated from “normal” dogs by their color, normally green or white with red ears. Fairy dogs were commonly believed to be a dark green in color with the ears being a darker green and the legs running a lighter green color. Its long tail, according to Campbell, was “rolled up in a coil on its back, but others have the tail flat and plaited like the straw rug of a pack-saddle.” (35) The famous fairy dog of Fin mac Coul, however, had yellow feet, black sides, white belly, green back and two pointed blood-red ears. In Wales, pure white dogs are thought to be fairy dogs.
According to Anna Franklin, “The fairy dog makes its lair in the clefts of rocks and travels in a straight line. It barks only three times and by the time the third bark is heard the victim is overtaken, unless he has reached a place of safety.” (36)
Black dogs are, of course, ghost dogs. However, there are very many stories concerning even more mysterious and ghostly apparitions of canines. One such encounter occurred in Pemiscot county Missouri—deep in the Ozarks. According to folklorist Vance Randolph, “Some night hunters…swore they saw an enormous black dog, fully eight feet long, without any head. They came close to the creature, and one man threw his ax at it, but the ax passed right through the body of the booger dog and stuck fast in a tree.” (37) Another headless dog was frequently seen near Braggadocio, Missouri running through the town on moonlit nights. “It behaves just like any other dog, but it is clearly headless,” wrote Randolph. (38)
“Black Dogs,” wrote Jennifer Westwood in her book Albion, “were in some places thought to be the ghosts of the unquiet dead. The wicked Lady Howard in Devon was so transformed…” (39)
And of course, we cannot fail to mention the hounds of the Wild Huntsman. Various locations around England and Europe in general, claim the Huntsman. Referred to in some locals as the “Wish Hounds” (“Wish” being a local word for the Devil) (40) these ferocious dogs with glowing red eyes accompany the Lord of Death on his swift horse—hunting for the souls of men. “Throughout all Aryan mythology,” noted John Fiske, “the souls of the dead are supposed to ride on the night-wind, with their howling dogs, gathering into their throng the souls of those just dying as they pass by their houses.” (41) Dogs that would sit under the window of seriously ill persons were thought to portend the coming death and it was customary in 19th century Europe to open the windows in homes after the death of a person “in order that the soul may not be hindered in joining the mystic cavalcade.” (42)
Various legends about dog-men have been related generation after generation in various locations around the world. In pre-revolutionary China there were of four clans of people called the Jung who worshipped the dog because, to them, the dog was their ancestor. According to legend, a dog requested the hand of a Chinese princess but was refused by her father unless the dog was able to change into the form of a man. This he almost did, his body was that of a man but his head remained that of a dog. Until the early 1920’s the Jung wore a large headpiece that entirely covered the head, the explanation being that they still had dog features due to their dog ancestor. (43)
Similar tales of the mating between human females and male wolves or dogs, resulting in a race of dog-men, are frequently found in Native American mythology. A race of dog-men also appears in Hawaiian mythology. “Among the peoples said to have appeared during the fifth period of the Kumulipo,” (44) wrote Martha Beckwith, “are the dog people…They lived in the sand hills [on Maui and Kauai] and they had mystical power of the demigods…in the form of big war dogs. These dog people still appear on Maui in the procession of spirits known as ‘Marchers of the night.’ They look like other human beings but have tails like a dog.” (45) These “dog people” were a well known class of Hawaiians said to have hairless bodies and well versed in wrestling and “bone breaking”. Some were considered professional robbers and others as cannibals. Other dog-men are described as dogs with human bodies and having supernatural power who used to terrorize the countryside.
Various myths and legends of Dog-Men exist in Hawaiian tradition. “The Great Dog Ku” is one of these. Ku, the Dog Man, was a spirit being that, one day “decided to come down from the clouds and visit mankind.” (46) Ku was able to change at will from his dog form to that of a man. Unfortunately, Ku desired the daughter of the High Chief who refused Ku’s advances. A savage war ensued with Ku striking as lightning and he killed and devoured many of the Hawaiian people.
Eventually many men fought Ku and killed him with spears and clubs. They cut Ku’s body into two pieces which were thrown far apart and turned to stone by the priests. These stones were reportedly venerated for many years by the Hawaiin people.
In many legends, it is this race of human-like dogs and wolves that are the creators of humankind. Some dog-men, such as the Egyptian jackal-headed Anubis became gods in their own right. Or, in the Christian sense, they became saints.
There are two types of dog-men. One, cynanthropy are the Dog-men that, according to David Gordon White, are “a hybrid creature who, while more human than the domesticated dog, is nonhuman in the sense that he belongs to an ‘other’ or foreign race, yet human in his social behavior.” (47) The second form is the Cynocephalic—human in form except it has a dog, wolf or jackal head, such as Anubis.
Monstrous races of beings were commonly believed in during the early years of the Christian church. Irish legend, according to MacCulloch, “speaks of men with cat, dog, or goat heads.” (48) As with any other Pagan symbol, or place or deity they became important to the Christian theology as well. St. Augustine in his writings “saved” these creatures and, as White states, they “eventually became Christendom’s favorite foils in the lives of the missionary saints who pacified, converted, domesticated, and placed them in the service of the Catholic cause.” (49)
One of these dog-headed beings, Christopher, became a Catholic saint, at least in Gnostic and Coptic texts. According to White, “Christopher’s Christian hagiography may be summarized as follows: He is a giant belonging to a cynocephalic race, in the land of the Channeans (the ‘Canines’ of the New Testament), who eat human flesh and whose only form of communication is barking (latrare). His original name, Réprebos…’the Condemned’ corresponds to his nature: he is black, pagan, ferocious, and dreadful.” (50)
According to the Coptic text, he is persuaded by Christ to fight against the Pagan armies until St. Babylus at Antioch baptize him. At this time, his skin becomes “white as milk” and he looses his canine characteristics. Christopher was depicted with a dogs head until the beginning of the 19th century on Eastern churches, bridges, city gates etc. Most of these images were destroyed by the iconoclasts at that time and are rare to be found except on a few illuminated manuscript pages.
The statues and carvings of Anubis in Egypt, as well as carvings dating back to 6600 BCE in the Sahara desert of a dog-headed man, are evidence of an ancient belief in dog-headed humanoids. According to French art-historian Jean-Pierre Mohen more than 140 dog-headed figures found so far “express the imaginary and symbolic relationships between man and animal rather than any hunting techniques”. (51) The carvings show creatures with “superhuman” strength and, write Mohen, “they exist to carry out sacred tasks”. (52) Do these images represent the nature of the dog as the guardian of the secrets of death and rebirth? Alternatively, do they represent creatures divine in their own right?
1. Cooper, J.C. An Illustrated Encyclopaedia on Traditional Symbols. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1978, 52.
2. Fiske, John. Myths and Myth-Makers: Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company 1881, 35.
3. Mackenzie, Donald A. India Myths & Legends. London: Studio Editions 1993, 40.
4. White, David Gordon. Myths of the Dog-Man. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 1991, 14.
5. Titcomb, Margaret. Dog and Man in the Ancient Pacific. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 59 1969, 18.
6. Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 1991, 231 and Merrifield, Ralph. The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic. New York: New Amsterdam Books 1987, 47.
7. Davidson, H. R. Ellis. Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press 1988, 57.
8. Mbiti, John S. African Religions and Philosophy. Garden City: Anchor Books 1969, 78.
9. Briggs, Robin. Witches & Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft. New York: Viking Press 1996, 121.
10. Wilbert, Johannes. Yupa Folktales. Latin American Studies, Volume 24. Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles 1974, 42.
11. Titcomb, op cit. 59.
12. Cooper op cit.
13. Radford, Edwin and Mona A. Encyclopaedia of Superstitions. New York: The Philosophical Library 1949, 103.
14. Green, Miranda. The Gods of the Celts. Gloucester: Alan Sutton 1986, 88.
15. Davidson, op cit, 109.
16. Black, Jeremy and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin: University of Texas Press 1992, 70.
18. MacKenzie, Donald A. Ancient Man in Britain. London: Senate 1996, 190. A reprint of the 1922 edition published by Blackie & Son Ltd, London.
19. Philips, David E. Legendary Connecticut: Traditional Tales from the Nutmeg State. Williamantic: Curbstone Press 1992, 237.
20. Ibid, 238.
21. Zigmond, Maurice L. “The Supernatural World of the Kawaiisu” in Thomas C. Blackburn (ed.) Flowers of the Wind: Papers on Ritual, Myth, And Symbolism in California and the Southwest. Socorro: Ballena Press 1977.
23. Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1989, 162.
24. Briggs, Katherine. British Folktales. New York: Pantheon Books 1977,115.
25. Jordan, Katy. The Haunted Landscape: Folklore, ghosts & legends of Wiltshire. Wiltshire: Ex Libris Press 2000, 174.
26. Anon. “Intact Tomb from Bronze Age Cyprus” in Archaeology Odyssey, May/June 2003, Vol 6 No. 3, 21.
27. Another purpose recorded in Japan was to sacrifice a black dog to obtain rain.
28. Trubshaw, Bob. "Black Dogs: Guardians of the corpse ways" in At The Edge, August 2001 http://www.indigogroup.co.uk/edge/bdogs.htm.
29. Zigmond, op cit. 1977.
30. Alexander, Hartley Burr. The World’s Rim: Great Mysteries of the North American Indians. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 1999, 201-202.
31. Evans-Wentz, W.Y. The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Mineola: Dover Publications Inc. 2002, 40.
32. Ibid, 120.
33. MacKenzie, op cit., 65.
34. Ibid, 66.
35. Campbell, John Gregorson. The Gaelic Otherworld, edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd., 200516.
36. Franklin, Anna. The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Fairies. London: Paper Tiger 2004, 68.
37. Randolph, Vance.Ozark Magic and Folklore. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1964, 224. A reprint of Ozark Superstitions published by Columbia University Press 1947.
38. Ibid, 225.
39. Westwood, Jennifer. Albion: A Guide to Legendary Britain. London: Paladin/Grafton Books 1985, 176.
40. Other names for these Black Dogs are Gabriel Hounds, Dando or Dandy Dogs, and in Wales the Cwm Annwn, the Hounds of Hell.
41. Fiske, op cit 76.
43. Werner, E.T.C. Myths and Legends of China. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1994, 419-423.
44. The “Kumulipo” is a chant of 2,077 lines, which tells of the creation of the world and the genealogy of a young Chief by the name of Keawe who lived in the 1700s.
45. Beckwith, Martha. Hawaiian Mythology. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press 1970, 343.
46. Westervelt, William D. Myths and Legends of Hawaii. Honolulu: Mutual Publishing 1987, 202
47. White, David Gordon. Myths of the Dog-Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1991, 16.
48. MacCulloch, J.A. The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc.2003, 217.
49. Ibid, 19.
50. Ibid, 34.
51. Mohen, Jean-Pierre. Prehistoric Art: The Mythical Birth of Humanity. Paris: Pierre Terrail/Telleri 2002, 185.
52. Ibid, 184.