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Controverial Claims On The Rigvedic Civilization In Indian Hisroty
By ayub mohammed   
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Last edited: Wednesday, March 24, 2010
Posted: Wednesday, March 24, 2010

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As a center for many unresolved questions in Indian history, since last century, due to have political notions, behind the formulations, propagations, and criticisms on the Aryan Invasion Theory, now in all circles, including politicians in recent years, is gaining ground on the strength of the belief and spirituality of the common people, who unavoidably linked with to the political interests, political groups, influential and pressure groups in Indian society, without proper evidences and argu

As a center for many unresolved questions in Indian history, since
last century, due to have political notions, behind the formulations,
propagations, and criticisms on the Aryan Invasion Theory, now in all
circles, including politicians in recent years, is gaining ground on
the strength of the belief and spirituality of the common people, who
unavoidably linked with  the political interests, political groups,
influential and pressure groups in Indian society, without proper
evidences and arguments in its admission and  its dismissal. For instance,
Subhash Kak, in his article "The Aryans and Ancient History",
discussed with citations against this theory on different grounds,
that there was no significant influx of people into India during this
period (4500 to 800 B.C), fire altars in the excavation of
Archeological survey of India, at the third millennium site of
Kalibangan were discovered, much referred holy river Saraswathi was
dried up around 1900 B.C as the geologists determined and the
discovery of  Brahmi script is derived from the script of
Indus-saraswathi age, as these are important in new discoveries and
concluded with "But further research is needed here." "The theory" of
Aryan Invasion since its discovery from the period of British did not
find its impact and net results in any form during and after
independence and even today also on the society, religion state and
philosophy in any way, except its theoretical limitations. The period
about the invasion, origin of the Aryans, nationality of them is also
very controversial, in scholars, historians, and religious circles in
India. Aryans, as nobles in its true meaning in Sanskrit entered into
the scene as early as formation of the Vedic Indian civilization after
the destruction of the Mohanjodaro civilization in various reasons
such as floods, earth quakes and attacks. Some scholars about the
origin of Aryans, says that, they belong to the Germany and Russia and
that there is also no unanimous opinion about the period of influx
nationality, origin, color, motives, culture, habits, gods and the
level of their advancement in their civilization.

Before entering into Saraswathi-Indus river area, which is the primary
and basic region in the Vedic culture, late Balagangadhar Tilak was
believed that the original home land of the Aryans, was the Arctic
region, as he himself was more concerned in leading the people while
freedom struggle. A.C Dass was of opinion that the original home of
the Aryans was the Sapt Sindhu of the Punjab. Swami Dayanand
Saraswathi, also expressed the opinion that they belonged to the
Tibet, some German scholars also forwarded their claim that the Aryans
original home land was their home land, on the growing importance of
the Aryans and their predominant role in Asia and Central Asian
region. Morgan, accordingly, there were from the Siberia. At least,
the original homeland of the Aryans was Saptha Sindhu, The Indus,
Jhalum, Chanab, Ravi Beas, Satlej and Saraswathi, as per the opinion
of A.C Dass, who put forward his view point in his "Rig Vedic" India,
is getting full support in the light of changing equations of the
political ideas, affiliations, interests, discoveries, excavations,
logics and arguments in recent days, as a result, the the
commercial site, opened the debate on Aryans, through an article
titled, "The Aryan Invasion Theory and Common Man" where in the writer
claimed that "the ancient Indians were responsible for lighting the
lamp of civilization in Persia, China, and Greece - Atal Bihari
Vaajpayee ( I apologize the inexact quote, but that is the gist of his
remarks)"2. There are also different opinions about the invasions
which was only one or two. According to Hoernle, Punjabi, Rajasthani,
Hindi, was belonged to the second group of Aryan Invaders, and western
of linguistic relations with the languages.  This theory also not
accepted by many scholars and historians. Some scholars claim that the
Aryans were migrated only as a result of the climate changes in their
homelands and reached the Rig Vedic region on its richness and natural
resourceful potentiality of that period, but largely the invasions
were carried out with fire and sword against original inhabitants and
exterminated them completely. But the Vaishna News editorial in its
article "Hallow earth theory and the Aryan invasion rejected totally
with its claim "One main reason that the theory has been called into
question is that there is no primary evidence, no movements to any
heroes of such invasions have been excavated, no related cemeteries
unearthed, no battle fields in relation to the theory, no foots, and
in short there is nothing in the way of physical evidence. There is
the host of other in-congruencies, but this is the general idea."3.
The Aryan theory of invasion, as an established mindset of some
historians, scholars and archeologists has its own evidences, grounds,
and still its interpretations in the different contexts of the
different school of thoughts of present in society, even though its
strong opponent school of thoughts at present in society, even though
its strong opponent discoveries, logics and inventions, give rise to
some more confrontationist approaches in intellectual, political,
philosophical and social fields of these would not take place in the
broad and widening politico-religious system of the country, where the
faith, belief and confidence, do play the most important role in
establishing these into facts and materials for some time at least.
There are no strong evidences recently discovered by any authority
competent in the field of Indian history through the excavations for
finding such remnants, structures, coins, statues, or anything
supporting the adverse version of the Aryan invasions theory from any
other ancient literature, except forwarding the old questions against
the rationality of this theory during its initial stage with the
support of ambiguous interpretations. Though, the growing thoughts
against this theory if succeeded in finding strong evidences, in its
basic grounds supported by the theory, would give more and more
solutions to many unresolved questions in Indian ancient history,
where the roots of the religion in present democratic setup of the
country is based upon. Dr. David Frawely in his article "Myth of the
Aryan invasion."4 strongly rejected the theory that

1.      It served to divide India into a northern Aryan, southern Dravidian
culture which were made hostile to each other.
2.      It gave the British an excuse in their conquest of India. They
could claim to be doing only what the Aryan ancestors of the Hindus
did previously a millennium ago.
3.      It served to make Vedic culture latter than and possibly derived
from Middle Eastern cultures, with the proximity and relationship of
the latter with the Bible and Christianity, this kept the Hindu
religion as a side light to the development of religion and
civilization to the west.
4.      It discredited not only the Vedas but the genealogy of the
"Puranas" and their long list of kings before Buddha like Rama,
Krishna, were left without any historical basis. The MahaBharatha
instead of Great War become folklore. In short, it discredited the
most of the Hindu tradition and almost all its ancient nature. It
turned its scriptures and sages into fantasies and exaggerations.
5.      It served a social, political and economical purpose of domination
proving the superiority of western culture and religion. It is clearly
established that the Aryan theory of Invasion is as he thinks that its
historical importance and the work behind it simply should be thrown
away on the ground of the discrediting importance of the Hindu
religions, Vedas, Puranas, Maha Bharatha and Hindu tradition without
any work, worth, evidence, labor and historical established facts only
for the sake of credit of the Hindu religion and advancement with
Middle East cultures and Christianity. "

Actually, the Aryan Invasion Theory was come to light by Deen Chandra,
through his article, "Distorted Historical events and discredited
Hindu chronology." "It was not only misguided research but also a
conspiracy to distribute deliberate misinformation that was formulated
on April 10, 1866, in London at a meeting held in Royal Asiatic
Society." "This was to induct the theory of Aryan invasion of India,
so that no Indian may say that English are foreigners."5 As it was
cited in an article "Death of the Aryan Invasion theory" written by
Stephen Knapp. Further he emphasized the need for the written history
of present time for future generations that the no way would leave
them to understand the advancement of the culture and civilization of
this time. He argued the possibility of misunderstanding about the
remnants of present time would lead them to understand the TV
antennas, intended to communicate the Gods of heaven from the homes of
these days and states with special coaches and reclining chairs, this
must surely be the prayer room where he would get the proper
inspiration for living life." From this point of view, the present
reversion of the history merely is on the ground of "Geometry of the
fire altars of India as summarized in early Vedic texts such as
Shatapatha Brahmana and compared it to the early geometry of the
Greece and Mesopotamia. In series of papers he was able to establish
that the Vedic geometry should be dated prior to 1700 BC." The point
of proving the geometry of fire altars which suffered in vedic texts
is needed the comparison of the geometry of Greece and Mesopotamia for
reading the time and age gives clarity that the fire altars were the
prior to 1700 BC. Further, "Remains of the horse have been discovered
in the Harappan reins. A clay model of horse was found in Mohanjodaro.
The new findings from Ukraine show evidence of horse riding as early
as 4000 BC. The notion that Aryans burst into horse riding nomads
sometime after 2000 BC stands totally rejected." Here also calculation
of time and age is based on the remains of the horse, which found in
Ukraine, which shows the horse riding was as early as 4000 BC.
Arguments with comparison from one region to another region about the
usage of the domestic animals, bones, hairs, and the rips certainly
give strength to some assumptions and pre-empts of the scholars and
historians to prove or disprove the point in argument for some time
and period, but would never serve the purpose what they have in mind,
as all the historians and scholars blaming the British for formulation
of the invasion theory of Aryans under their rule in India. The
scholars, historians and supporters of Indian origin of the Aryans,
argue that the Europeans and Iranians migrated from India, as the
Vedas, composed in India and the Hindu religion and Indian society,
structure of present time is based on the Vedas in which they claim
that the Vedas do not refer the invasion of any outsiders including
Aryans. This is the only theory, since last one and half century, some
thousands of discoveries, excavations, arguments, moving around for
finding the origin of the Aryans, and their culture, habits and
intentions, but seems remain incomplete in the absence of the strong
traces and evidences both in favor and dismissal due to having its
base and roots strongly creped in present society and the present form
of Hindu religion. Those who are rejecting the Aryan's Invasion theory
also do not have enough grounds and evidences that the Aryan's origin
is located in India and they are the original habitants of this
country and they gave the country strong traditional culture, ancient
history and great civilization prior to the famous world civilization
of Mesopotamia. Though, on the availability of the traces, remnants,
structures, literature, arguments and evidences, if we get further any
advancement, in establishing the invasion theory of Aryans, it would
be a great contribution to the history of world civilizations where
the value and position of the Indians, historians, and scholars, would
become so dignified that no one would imagine that the Indian ancient
history possessed such potentiality and richness in guiding all other
histories of civilizations in the world and the trend would be
reversed and the entire burden of proof of such greatness of
consciousness and advancement pushed to test fires of the present age
and its present form of rationality and thinking would be questioned.
All the issues related contents and all the roots of the progress of
the Indian civilization would be shined and existed unquestionably for
centuries together with great honor and dignity.

As to form an Idea about the human progress, culture, civilization
from pre-historic age to proto-history passing through the Paleolithic
age, Mesolithic age, Neolithic age, copper and bronze age and iron
age, a large number of remnants in Sindh, Rajasthan, Madhya Bharat,
Orissa, north Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarath, Bengal
and Rajasthan found that the men depended upon the natural resources
like fruits, fish and animals for a long centuries together and after
the progress of their thoughts in using the copper, jasper, chart,
blood stone, and bronze as the most common view perhaps only
acceptable by all scholars and historians about the progress and
development of the Indian civilization in the western context and the
Indian context in the absence of strong evidences in the field of
history of research. It was only under the directorship of Sir John
Marshal, who had taken up excavation work from 1921 to 1927 and he
presented the Indus civilization as a greater achievement to the
Indian ancient history, which was existed and destroyed prior to the
Invasion of Aryans. It was broadly proved that the village and
civilization was existed well in advance. Ancient civilizations both
at Lahore and Punjab known as Harappa and Mohanjodaro were discovered.
It was proved that the existence of the village and civilization
before entrance of the Aryans, but the questions are still unresolved
in many aspects. Soon after finding Harappa and Mohanjodaro
civilizations in later excavations, invasions parts of northern India
namely, Rupar in Ambala District Rangpur and lothal in soorashtra and
Kalibangan, where almost similar things of Harappa and Mohanjodaro
excavations got seemed the continuity of the Harappa and Mohanjodaro
civlization in various parts of the country. There are no differences
about the findings of the Mohanjodaro, where in the streets and houses
were built with well plan, houses also built with perfection and
advancement for the atmosphere. Walls were found where the sized
bricks used. The floors and drainage linked to the main channels of
the city. Swimming, baths, wells, were well protected; drainage system
of the Harappan people with the bricks with 9X12 sizes proves that the
civilization flourished well in advance. Wells were found in that
city, pottery, weapons and seals of the Harappan people used
discovered, shows that they made vassals for domestic use and the
weapons like axes, spears, bows and arrows they used for their use, as
to find strong traces and the things used as the mark for religion in
that civilization. 

There were more than 500 seals, figurines, stone images, were
resembling the features of the Gods and Goddesses as a choice of
assumptions they got while presenting the excavation results in all
fields as the civilization should contain. Of them one the seal
contain on which one side nude female figure and a man with sickle
shaped knife in hand another one side a woman seated on the ground
with raised hands and on another seal "the most remarkable figure is
that of three faced deity wearing horned headdress, seated
cross-legged in the posture of yogi and surrounded by the elephant, a
tiger, a buffalo and rhino cars with a deer under the seat." All these
figures on only 2 to 3 seals are enough to give the color of God whose
one incarnation on the name Shiva and another seal, which contain the
figure of dancing girl, whose left hand wore number of bangles, shows
that the women used bangles ornaments, jewelry, bracelets, anklets and
other ornaments as the analysis and calculations of the historians,
archeologists, and scholars interpret that the civilization and its
progress was gauged. Complete presentation and description of the
discoveries were written by Sir John Marshall in big size 3 volumes
with clarity and perfection. Still there is no question of any
differences among the scholars, archeologists and historians when the
female nude, yogi postured man, with some wild animals manipulated by
Sir John Marshall, the position of God of the Harappan civilization.
As per the texts, reports and articles claiming that they must have
some deities, as a matter of complete shape of the civilization. There
were other nature Gods also worshipped including Pasupathi Shiva,
Mahalinga Shiva, Whal, Pipal, swastika in general applications of the
religion and its role in the Harappan culture and civilization. When
the people of harappan civilization were able to make such advanced
arrangements for the cleaning the cities, elaborate drainage systems
from individual houses to city, dwelling houses with two or three
floor buildings, wells, bathrooms, latrines, thick walls of seven
feet, the roofs, windows at the road side faces, doors, and 30 sq.
feet of ground flour and platform about 360X180 sq. meters,
definitely, they could be able to build worshipping places, structures
and some extra-ordinary level of constructions for their principal or
common deities. It was also estimated that the government and its
nature of functioning in the Harappan civilization but could not be
given to the government in complete shape. It was stated that this
city was build about 5000 years ago. The origin and base of the Aryan
Invasion theory could be found in Rig Veda only, which was stated to
be compiled about 550 BC, according to Dr. J.R Hertal. Acording to
Jacobi, Rig Veda had been written in 3rd millennium BC. Olden Berg was
of opinion that the Vedic literature can be traced earlier than 1000
BC. According to Dr. Winternitz, composition of Rig Veda is probably
about 2000 or 2500 BC, and the end of compilation between 750 and 500
BC. According to A.L Bhasham, Rig Veda was composed between 1500 and
1000 BC and said that "The discovery of the Indus cities, which have
nothing in common with the culture described in Rig Veda and are
evidently pre-Vedic proves that the hymns cannot have been composed
before the end of Harappa. Max Muller in his Gifford lectures on
"physical religion" in 1889 observed that we cannot hope to fix a
terminus a quo. Whether the Vedic hymns were composed in 1000 or 1500
or 2000 or 3000 years BC, no power on earth will ever determine."
About the Aryan invasion theory in their book, Michel Danino and
Sujatha Nahar opined that "The Harappan civilization mysteriously
disappeared in 1900 BC after almost 2000 years. It is seen in the
ancient history research, there is still differences and gap in the
setting time within the frame of progress of civilization from the
three different issues, existence and distortion of the Harappan city,
Aryan invasion theory and the Rig Veda and its compilation period and
compilation of time. From the point of existence and destruction of
Harappan civilization there was an advanced civilization before its
death and the formulation of Aryan theory from Rig Veda, is there any
history in the world, once advanced generations and civilizations,
again starts by going back to the learning stage in making
civilization?  If so, Indian civilization is very different in its own
kind. Post Harappan excavations, in various parts of northern India,
archeologists found some similar relics of the Harappan remnants which
give the historians, scholars and archeologists an opinion that the
Harappan people lived at different parts. But no progress is found in
this direction, leading to the confusions leaving the vacuum for
presumptions and own notions of the scholars and historians, lack of
sufficient evidence about the existence and the reasons for the
destructions of the Harappan civilization, and the drying up of the
Saraswathi river, composition of Rig Veda, hymns, at the banks of the
Saraswathi river, continuous period of compilation of Rig Veda hymns
for un-notified centuries together and claims of the points of
arguments of the historians and scholars definitely invite the
applications and interpretations of the origin and progress of the
civilization, where in, the origin, growth and features of the state,
the nucleus of the religion, growth, philosophy and progressive or
destructive role of the religion, basic need of the division of labor,
establishing elements of the class, classes, the social division of
the civilization, noble class, intellectual class, clergy section,
middle class sections and ruling class, themselves interlinked
together under dependability of each and every section and class in
the civilization at the period. On the other hand as the tentacles of
Rig Vedic society trying to own the Harappan and Mohanjodaro
civilizations, for grabbing the skills, progress, intelligentsia,
co-ordination among themselves, system of the governance and culture,
the ancient civilization, the question automatically arise in the
minds of scholars, historians, and archeologists about the
inapplicability of such great architects in their own Rig Vedic
society and civilization, where in the worshippers and enchanters of
Vedic hymns invite Indra, to hear them, with offer of Soma drink for
hearing the praise of Indra that he  was such worthful at the early
composition of hymns in Rig Veda Book 1. If the post Harappan
civilization's continuity as stated to be found in some other parts of
the northern India, what could be the reasons for that destructions in
the lines of Harappan and Mohanjodaro had to be the important subject
for the scholars, historians and archeological departments for
patching up the ancient history in the time line, as other countries
possession. Aryan theory of invasion itself was produced from the Rig
Veda only, which translated by the Max Muller with great courage and
enthusiasm. Rig Veda itself is the base for the interpretations of
Aryan Invasion theory. Hence Rig Veda again occupied much more
priority and importance in the present context of gaining grounds for
the rejection of Aryan invasion theory.

                                          Ayub mohammed


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