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Paul Williams

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Tyger! Tyger! William Blake
By Paul Williams
Last edited: Tuesday, June 27, 2006
Posted: Wednesday, October 05, 2005



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Another short essay on one of my favourite poets, much maligned and dismissed as eccentric in his own time, but who proved to be a visionary who would inspire generations. A personal favourite.

William Blake (1757-1827) was a British poet, painter, visionary mystic, and engraver. Misunderstanding shadowed his career as a writer and artist and it was left to later generations to recognize his importance as a poet and artist. He achieved little fame in his own lifetime and it wasn’t until the twentieth century that he became recognised as a poetic genius. Much of his life was spent in rebellion, proclaiming the supremacy of the imagination over the rationalism and materialism of the 18th century, in particular, rejecting the formal restrictions of Augustan poetry, writing in a lyrical visionary style and developing, in the process, an individual view of the world. 



Blake's first book of poems, Poetical Sketches, appeared in 1783 when he was just 14, and was followed by Songs of Innocence (1789), and Songs of Experience (1794). In which, the world is seen from a child's point of view, but they also function as parables of adult experience. In these works several poems are written in pairs, contrasting states of human innocence and experience. In them, Blake reveals a profound understanding of psychology and an ability to explore the spiritual side of human existence, both of which are remarkably modern traits. Blake makes extensive use of symbolism in his poetry. Some of the symbols are straightforward: innocence is symbolised by children, flowers, lambs, or particular seasons. Oppression and rationalism are symbolised by urban industrial landscapes, by machines by those in authority (including priests) and by social institutions. The Symbolism in his later works such as the epic Milton is less easy to interpret. Often creating a mythology all of his own. His most famous poem and symbol "The Tyger", was part of his work Songs of Experience. The Tiger has been interpreted differently by successive generations but its basic meaning is the natural and creative energy of human life, an inspiring shape (‘symmetry’) that no one should try to control:

 


Tyger! Tyger! burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the fire?


And what shoulder, and what art.
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand? and what dread feet?


What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?


When the stars threw down their spears,
And watered heaven with their tears,
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?


Tyger! Tyger! Burning bright
in the forests of the night,
what immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?


There is so much more to this poem, but it perhaps represents, like so much of his poetry the embodiment of his dissatisfaction with society and for his belief in the power of uncorrupted feeling and imagination.


Blake engraved and published most of his major works himself. Famous among his "Prophetic Books" are The Book of Thel (1789) The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, (1790) The Book of Urizen, (1794) America (1793), Milton (1804-8) and Jerusalem, (1804-20). In the "Prophetic Books", Blake expressed his lifelong concern with the struggle of the soul to free its natural energies from reason and organized religion. Among Blake's later artistic works are drawings and engravings for Dante's Divine Comedy and the 21 illustrations to the book of Job, which was completed when he was almost 70 years old.

Blake never shook off his economic poverty, which was in large part due to his inability to compete in the highly competitive field of engraving and his expensive invention that enabled him to design illustrations and print words at the same time. However, independent throughout his life, Blake left no debts at his death on August 12th, 1827. He was buried in an unmarked grave in the public cemetery of Bunhill Fields. Though generally dismissed as an eccentric during his lifetime, posterity rediscovered Blake and today he is highly regarded as one of the most influential poets and artists of the Romantic period.


 


 


 

P. Williams 2000-2005

 
 
 

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Reviewed by A PAX 9/6/2006
Wonder if there are any Blakes lurking her at AD?
Reviewed by Veronica Hosking 6/13/2006
Blake is one of my favorite poets as well. I enjoyed reading your article on him.
Reviewed by Nordette Adams 5/17/2006
Boy, I'm late. :-) Thank you for this, Paul. I am also a Blake admirer. You know English students should love you. Your essays on poetry and authors would be a big help with homework. *smiles* ~~Nordette
Reviewed by E. Richardson 1/11/2006
I was rambling about in here and discovered this delightful and informative article of yours.
Blake has been an interest of mine since my high school days...(yep, that be a long time ago...heheheehh) and still is today.
In addition to the poem you use here, my other favorites are:

"He who binds himself to a joy
does the winged life destroy
but he who kisses the joy as it flies
lives in eteernity's sunrise."

and...

"To see a world in a grain of sand
And a heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand
And eternity in an hour"

This last one was the inspiration of a poem of mine, which if I can locate in files, I will post.

Good job here, Paul.
Reviewed by Birgit and Roger Pratcher 1/8/2006
Thanks for bringing Blake back to mind. A very informative article, learned a lot that was either long forgotten or never discovered, excellent.
Birgit and Roger
Reviewed by Aberjhani 11/9/2005
Jose Arguelles in THE TRANSFORMATIVE VISION described Blake as a powerful prophet and as "an exemplary heretic dissenting not only critically but creatively from the prevailing technological order." And I think that has always been my sense of Blake as well. I can see why the roaring fire of Blake's creative vision would inspire such eloquent flames within your own. May they forever burn bright.
Aberjhani
Reviewed by Shoma Mittra 11/1/2005
This poem was one of my favourites as a child and later when I did English literature, Blake became that much more close. He may not be my favourite poet, but i certainly like his wrriting.Thank you for this insightful piece. :-) shoma
Reviewed by m j hollingshead 10/8/2005
enjoyed the read
Reviewed by Felix Perry 10/5/2005
Interesting Paul good to see you post again.

Felix
Reviewed by Tinka Boukes 10/5/2005
Thanks for sharing this insightful piece of history....you are a good teacher...and a master when it comes to the poetic word my dear friend!!

Love Tinks :)))
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