Artificial Intelligence Design Metaphor (C)
As I argue the benefits’ and risks’ of architectural axioms I condition one with the other even though the risk to building design application is minimal and any consequences benign. I present this intertwined argument because such dangers are currently on the minds of many in the AI community. To talk about one without consideration of the other might seem presumptuous and naïve. However, in my opinion as a licensed design professional, the benefits to an AI user-context would far outweigh the risks. Whatever malfunctions and dangers would only affect a specific well contained user and be easily controlled. Worst case would be a cost of time and expense to repair and redo as is the profession’s current practice.
The resolution to my claims is that architectural metaphoric axioms themselves sufficiently manage the marginal risk [ff] of AI being a potential adversary limiting the intelligence of machines and explaining the essential difference between human intelligence and artificial intelligence. In my view architectural AI is best viewed as a surrogate and not an adversary! While architectural metaphoric axioms contribute managing the risk [ff] of AI being a potential adversary, it is left to society to debate whether machines have a mind and consciousness. Within this context the challenge for AI managers is AI’s capacity to discern metaphors (humans have the capacity and capability to make use and discern metaphors). AI challenge is to abridge these architectural metaphoric axioms into their platform’s programs and systems, when they do this AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will both be improved by metaphoric axioms and mange risk [ff]. To achieve this goal I believe the AI community can regulate, legislate, monitor and license AI and its architectural devices and thus engraft AI with sympathetic human characteristics and concerns.
As AI and architecture mediate and control their mutual interactions metaphoric axioms will have cognitive impact on both the future of architecture and AI because there is common metaphor between natural (NI) and artificial intelligence (AI). The inference warrants that for both architectures’ (AI and building) , master builder is an interdisciplinary, multi-crafted and multi-venue team, They are also both arts since they wed intentional ideas to craft and they both make metaphors, the commonality to all the arts. While “architect” actually means master builder and “architecture” the product of the master builder, this is historically identified with habitable buildings. The warrant to the inference of the resolution is that the computer industries (and virtual designers) have made a metaphor referring to the word “architecture” with its conceptual design and fundamental operational structures of computer systems. Already, IT and AI industry metaphorically compare their sciences and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals with the ways and means traditional architects design buildings. There is an interconectivity between the metaphor of computer’s instruction set architecture, or ISA, machine language (or assembly language), Microarchitecture and system design. Theoretically, I warrant that the as the body and mind of AI has identified itself with “architecture” there is an opportunity to use those links to apply and manage risks of AI to building architecture. However, benign, risks include operating system downtime, programming errors, inaccuracy in labeling and dimensions, misreading building codes, local ordinances, misinterpreting FEMA regulations and potential tampering with building security systems. .
Further risks include erroneous selection of material and building systems that may expose architects to errors and omissions suits, so many of the general and specific axioms guidelines can be uploaded into the AI architectural system. So with AI potential risk [ff] what can be the impact of artificial intelligence on the future of building architecture?
IBM FORTRAN 4 classes at Yale, Program planning for several Silicone Valley data companies and Gulf Oil Corp computerized Project Management System (PMS) later published by John Wiley and sons. Columbia University coursework in behavioral psychology under Ralph Hefferline and others in voice/linguistics, Bachelor’s of Fine Arts from Pratt Institute and Master of Architecture from Yale University where I was mentored in metaphors and metaphysics by Dr. Paul Weiss.
I founded the New York City not-for–profit corporation called Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments. In addition to authoring over fifteen published monographs by learned journals I have spent 20 years in Saudi Arabia and have written a book containing pen and ink drawings on perceptions of 72 European cities. Institutional affiliations: Global University ;American Institute of Architects; Florida Licensed Architect; Programming Chairperson for the Gulf Coast Writers Association; National Council of Architectural Registration Boards; Al-Umran association of Saudi Arabia, American Society of Interior Designers; and founding president of Architects International Group of the Mid-East.
Because artificial intelligence is inherently axiomatic, interdisciplinary [aa] and metaphoric it is uniquely suited to combine risk management and building architecture. Metaphoric axioms improve AI’s and architecture’s interactions by likening it to architecture. As AI architecture, the “strange” of AI becomes linked to the “familiar” architecture and the two can be compared: AI and architecture, they both can benefit from a metaphoric vocabulary. As most AI/IT activities, they work through digital and mechanical devices, mainframes, hard drives, processors, motherboards and chips, as well as application software, firmware, middleware, (which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems) , and system software (such as operating systems) , which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software, these are all the body to the brain of AI. To warrant my claim as other disciplines these bodies are driven by some form of axioms (structured vocabulary) however, about AI architectural work, there is presently little in the way of axioms. Historically, in the early eighties, Silicone Valley data companies (I consulted such companies in Sunnyvale between 1979 and 1981) scoured the market for soft information to build proposed programs for computer aided design (CAD) intended to be driven by design professionals to actually lay down graphic images instead of hand drafted (pencil on paper) drawings. Having put traditional draftsman out of the loop, and, developed “master specs” for computerized specifications, the next step is now to reduce the expense of design personal and extend the design capability and capacity.
Thirty years later the design industry claims that what can be done for the design of manufacturing plants, machine parts and assemblies may be applicable to creating communities, environments, developments and specific buildings. The resolution’s presumed context is that it is not just limited to information technology (IT) but a presumption of intelligence assuming man can make something which can think for itself as today’s computer games, medical procedures, aircraft and military devices The below examples show that when programmed, systems can make judgments in a strange environment and metaphorically make the strange familiar (metaphorically) and systematically design buildings. (Where design is intentionally originating and developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or component). The impact of artificial intelligence on the future of architecture: practice, process and products are that today there are “smart buildings” with internal mechanical and electrical systems that respond to the specific behavioral patterns of occupants. Below you will find potentials for the use of metaphoric architectural axioms where artificial intelligence examples have been applied to designing buildings without necessarily acting as an “architect”, where design is only one architectural function.
No more than would we have diagnostic equipment and robotics perform sovereign surgery on a doctor’s patient. Currently all other systems use protocols, parameters and axiomatic frameworks, axioms and guidelines needed to facilitate artificial diagnostics, analysis, and design of buildings at one or another level is the impact of artificial intelligence on the future of architecture. To complete the case for the resolution that AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will be improved and managed risks [ff] by metaphoric axioms I have provided a short summary of the claims and examples a of the 83 axioms I have authored in another much longer monograph [T].
Leaving those details of all the axioms for another essay suffice it to say that these axioms are essential drivers of AI architectural activities. As a predicate this AI system can be used by the architectural profession to expand its use of metaphors and services to manage the design process by interfacing with clients, society, culture, contactors and building authorities and finally selecting the appropriate axioms and managing the overall design process [aa].
These architectural metaphoric axioms will have an impact on the future of AI and building architecture. Since a host for the architectural metaphoric axioms is needed I warrant my inference that even today’s architectural practice has changed, communicating between many disciplines via the internet. “The availability of reliable, high-speed electronic connectivity enabled collaborative design team’s function irrespective of physical distance. [V] This calls for new type of design and simulation environment—one that facilitates automated searching and locating of satisfying and optimizing parts, integration of selected parts in an assembly, and simulation of the overall design that is distributed over the Internet”.
An increasing quantity of building applications of AI work is based on [W] “Building Information Modeling (BIM) generating and managing building data during its life cycle”. AI neither promises uncontrolled sovereign operations, inventions, creativity, and innovative design but instead it promises to operate within the parameters and limits designed by man and if it could innovate, invent and create it would only do so with either specific geometry or geometric axioms. However said, Science fiction writers extrapolate the potential of AI beings aimed at ultimately destroying their creators. This metaphor to Frankenstein is to our culture as intimidating as is other unsavory results of cloning. Examples to the inferences where already industrial design for automobiles, aircraft and boats use design applications to meet aerodynamic, seismic, wind, structural loads, etc. These already account for the strength of materials, if given, or can optimally select materials based on its library of manufactured products. In addition [U] virtual building environments (VBE) are now producing graphic scenarios to estimate, plan, buy and build; already artificial intelligence is having an impact of on the future of architecture Examples and concerns applying AI to building design.
Without concerns for risks the practical and the esoteric applications of AI to the built environment is often the result of metaphoric inventive processes, shocks and imaginative invention such as [M] ANTS which is an innovative example of an AI application to design buildings. “The Autonomic Nanotechnology Swarm (ANTS) is a generic mission architecture consisting of miniaturized, autonomous, self-similar, reconfigurable, addressable components forming structures. The components/structures have wide spatial distribution and multi-level organization. This ‘swarm’ (metaphor) behavior is inspired (metaphoric association) by the success of social insect colonies where within their specialties, individuals outperform generalists and with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, groups of specialists outperform groups of generalists.
[M] (Multi-disciplinary) Axiomatically,
the type of information that is preserved in the traditional built environment is organized-complexity: precisely the type of information that defines living systems themselves. Thus, the traditional built environment consists of evolved and discovered solutions (schemata) that make our life easier and more meaningful” [N]. That having been said as ACTS combines design and construction “Research in construction automation at the University of Reading led to the formulation of a computer-integrated, component-based construction system.
[Q} The Reading Building System was rationalized for automation following a systematic study of the construction processes involved in the design and erection of a variety of building types, especially high-tech offices. Computer-aided design (CAD) packages were written that used Parts Set components as primitives and that offered flexibility in design that was so often lacking in earlier approaches to system building. At the same time, a family of automation aids was developed to manipulate the parts that were modeled in the CAD In the Netherlands [S] “Artificial Design focuses on the application in architecture and design of the algorithmic approach to art being developed at the Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam. Once a style has been defined the tool can suggest any desired number of alternative designs for a given document.
The Department of Artificial Architecture develops programs which generate random specifications of 3-dimensional objects. Each of these programs employs a "visual grammar" to define an infinite set of structures, and then draws random samples from this space”.
The science of design usually conceives of AI as a set of tools for structuring the process, or planning, or optimizing. [R] This further warrants that “ Rarely does the computer explore a space of designs, and in doing so, it is generally following a set of precise rules, so the machine is doing little else than repeating a series of mechanical steps, faster than a human could. Creativity is usually considered to lie outside the realm of what computers can do”. Evolutionary Design (ED), the creation of designs by computers using evolutionary methods is a new research area with an enormous potential”.
Researched Publications: Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs": Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University
1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture
4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on Academia.edu since 2008
5. "The Metametaphor of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997
6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993
7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994
8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994
9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.
10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995
11."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995
12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland
13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993
14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne
15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010
16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197
17. "Metaphors and Architecture." ArchNet.org. October, 2009.at MIT
18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”; University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture.
19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section
20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten; http://reconstruction.eserver.org/;
21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j2632623064r5ljk/ Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103.
22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010)
23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87.
24. “The soverign built metaphor”: monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011 25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”:The Book; Contract to publish: 2011 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK