AuthorsDen.com  Join | Login 

     Popular! Books, Stories, Articles, Poetry
Where Authors and Readers come together!

Signed Bookstore | Authors | eBooks | Books | Stories | Articles | Poetry | Blogs | News | Events | Reviews | Videos | Success | Gold Members | Testimonials

Featured Authors: DR FRED BELL, iWendy Laing, iDave Cole, iMark Lichterman, iCarol Fowler, iJack Harney, iBeverly Scott, i

David Arthur Walters

· Become a Fan
  Notify me of new titles
  added by this author.

· 515 titles
· 553 Reviews
· Share with Friends!
·
Member Since: Sep, 2004

   Sitemap
   My Blog
   Contact Author
   Read Reviews


Short Stories
· I Was A Frustrated Newspaper Columnist

· I Was A Crack Adding Machine Operator

· Whom God Hears

· On The Immortal Story

· The Honor System for Parolees

· Doctor Sagwell

· My Career as a Manhattan Liquor Inspector

· The Underbed

· The First Time I Ran Away From Home

· Kimberly Reagan Sanchez Immigrates


Articles
· Vituperative Recriminations

· A Meaningful Life

· Fear and Love and Doom

· Introduction To The Word God

· Boredom Can Kill

· The Great Hypocrisy of Office

· Universal Reasoning

· Spinoza's God

· Tolerance

· The Poetic Genius of William Blake


Poetry
· Mother Charlotte Watches Over Us Still

· Sisyphus

· Certainly Heroes Must Exist

· What Hath God Wrought?

· Shekhinah

· Derridada

· St. Louis Arch

· Follow Your Heart

· My Cold Dutch Wife

· Antonia

         More poetry...
News
· Marco Rubio - Republican Font of Youth

· Free Speech in the Public Interest

· King Philip Levine of Miami Beach

· Press Trial of Miami Beach Code Compliance

· Black & White Distinctions in South Beach

· Black Week Scare Lingers in Miami Beach

· Miami Beach Mayor Obscene Propaganda Organ

David Arthur Walters, click here to update your web pages on AuthorsDen.
    Share Save       

Singing the Health Insurance Blues Again

8/3/2009 6:31:00 AM

by David Arthur Walters


The health of a nation depends on the physical and mental health of its people. Will President Obama sell us out?

President Barrack Hussein Obama is now deeply involved in the usual compromising process which occurs after presidents take the hypocritical oath of office, that of selling short the planks of the campaign that caused many people to believe in a candidate. Business-as-usual is all ready returning, as we can see by the enormous non-performance bonuses banks are handing out, and by tepid proposals that would merely tweak the regulatory scheme in reality controlled by big business, tightening a few loose screws here and there, and President Obama is going along with the mainstream.

 

Yet, even as his deeds are done contrary to the words that were spoken, many people will continue to believe in President Obama simply because he is a charming man and they are naturally unwilling to admit that they judged him wrongly. Well, he is only a president and not the Almighty. A president can easily rouse a bored and effete people and their congress to war on a distant people, for people naturally love violence as much as sex, but fighting sickness and poverty is another matter unless the misery is extreme, and then revolution instead of reform is the key word. President Obama may have missed his window of opportunity to effect radical change. The greatest recession since the Great Depression may have only been a rather expensive traffic ticket on the road to hell.

 

The greatest thing President Obama could get done, if only he were up to the job, would be the nationalization our health insurance system. At least he would push through the community-rated Public Insurance Option, which the great majority of us want, and which he still says he favors. But he has apparently capitulated to the johns who frequent the federal houses of ill repute, both the commons and the aristocracy, trading public health for a few tweaks of business-as-usual.

 

We saw it coming when he did not even mention the Public Insurance Option during the recent speech that preceded a national press conference. When a reporter broached the subject during the session of questions and answers, he said favored it, but apparently not enough to make it the sign qua non of his signature on a reform bill. We figured it was off the table, and that the most that shortchanged people would get would be slightly more regulation of the wasteful and unjust health insurance industry as we know it. More recently he said that his plan would prohibit insurance companies from discriminating against sick people, but he did not say that he would require all plans to be community rated so that everyone, no matter how old they were or whether they were employed or not, would pay the same premium.

 

Billions in profits are being reported by health insurance companies as we speak. The last big health insurance reform effort resulted in obscene gains to the industry’s administrators instead of the medical providers. After seeing what commercial insurance companies can do to exploit people’s essential need for health insurance, and after being subjected to federal income taxes under the tax reform of 1986, it is no wonder that non-profit Blue Shields, run by boards of doctors who naturally tend to put the welfare of their profession ahead of the welfare of their patients, are converting to mutual profit organizations or consolidating stock companies lately – Well Point is now the largest Blue Shield around.

 

The Blues evolved from the desire to fund medical care for teachers, loggers and miners. While the Blue trademarks became a symbol for quality insurance for employed workers, who are physically and financially healthier than impoverished unemployed people, large pools of funds became available to certified hospitals and licensed doctors, and they charged accordingly. Increases in premiums, purportedly due in large part to scientific advances, and technological progress including formal education and administrative techniques, would get them an even greater pool of funds to draw from. We have here the usual tug-of-war between need and greed. The Zoroastrian Dualists believed that, although there are two gods, the good god would win out in the very long run. In the case of health insurance, the contrary now appears true. But do not count on it, for the conflagration still impends as $100,000,000 bonuses are paid, mansions are snapped up at $2,000,000 discounts, and the recovery of Miami’s humble workforce, for instance, depends on the likes of the $10 per hour paid from the stimulus package to Tiffany Barkley for sorting out photos of dead people at the county medical examiner’s office during her summer internship – so far Florida is last on the stimulated list, at $610 per capital, while the District of Columbia is first, at $3,891 per capital.

 

So-called bipartisan senators have proposed an exchange or pool of non-profit insurance companies for people to select from instead of the Public Option the President allegedly “favors”, but given the history of the Blues, which are independent franchises permitted to use the Blue Cross emblem, the Greek cross that Joseph Binder included on his 1934 poster advertising the American Hospital Association, and the Blue Shield symbol designed by Carl Metzger in 1939, why bother to re-invent one of the big wheels with many spokes that is presently crushing us? Incidentally, the AHA designed the Blue Cross guidelines in way intended to reduce price competition among hospitals. Physicians lobbied vigorously to make sure they were represented on the physician-sponsored Blue Shield boards.  The Blues now administer Medicare in several areas, provide insurance to state employees, and are a favorite option under the federal employee insurance program, hence the Blues have a great deal of influence on our elected representatives at the highest levels.

 

We certainly know that we all must have health insurance to spread the economic risk of costly illness. The health of a nation depends on the physical and mental health of its people. There are certainly many things individuals can do on their own to have and maintain a healthy constitution, but human nature, no matter how healthy, is vulnerable, and the United States government is constitutionally charged with attending to the welfare of its citizens. Since health is fundamental to everyone’s well being, or is in fact their well being and chief happiness, and since the diminishment of that health is enormously costly to the nation on the whole, and since the cost of preventing disease, healing the sick and maintaining health very great, spreading the risk through mutual insurance is necessary, and that insurance should be a public utility. Whether individuals actually see the cost as a premium or it is charged to a budgeted or general tax fund is a formality – as it is, we are already paying for medical care one way or another. Leaving the health of our nation in the hands of private capitalists and their managers, whose main interest is profit and executive compensation, is absurd, as every advanced nation on this earth but the United States has realized long ago.  

 

Although we might not admit it, we know the awful truth about naked capitalism and the supposed self-regulation of its free markets. Its object is not to increase competition but to eliminate it, and one way of eliminating it besides undercutting or buying competitors off is by buying off the government that would regulate business in the public interest. And then it is said that the business of government is business, and the bigger the better. Fascism is thus the perfection of capitalism. We prefer to call it corporatism today instead of fascism, for the latter term conjures up visions of concentration camps and gas chambers, whereas corporatism is multicultural and slowly nickels-and-dimes the basis of the established pyramid to death while the power elite at the apex live high off the hog. That system is bound to collapse catastrophically at one point or another.   And if President Obama and his business-as-usual team sell us out, it will collapse sooner than later.     

 

 

 

 



More News by David Arthur Walters

· Marco Rubio - Republican Font of Youth - 4/17/2015 8:57:00 AM
· Free Speech in the Public Interest - 3/31/2015 6:29:00 AM
· King Philip Levine of Miami Beach - 3/17/2015 7:18:00 AM
· Press Trial of Miami Beach Code Compliance - 12/29/2014 6:53:00 AM
· Black & White Distinctions in South Beach - 12/15/2014 6:54:00 AM
· Black Week Scare Lingers in Miami Beach - 12/12/2014 6:43:00 AM
· Miami Beach Mayor Obscene Propaganda Organ - 10/18/2014 7:13:00 AM
· Happy Hour at Hiro's South Beach - 10/7/2014 5:38:00 AM
· Rename Arthur Godrey Road Jackie Mason Boulevard - 8/2/2014 6:10:00 AM
· Notice of Incompetence - 7/9/2014 8:08:00 AM
· A Little Imperialist Bird Whistles at President Maduro - 6/25/2014 8:44:00 AM
· Fighting Corruption in Miami Beach - 11/19/2013 7:39:00 AM
· Two-Faced Vipers in Miami Beach - 10/9/2013 9:05:00 AM
· City Attorney Threatens to Sue Authorsden Author - 8/31/2013 6:37:00 AM
· Unconditional Love in South Beach - 7/25/2013 8:17:00 AM
· New Miami Beach Manager Sweeps Allegations Under Rug - 7/3/2013 9:41:00 AM
· Is Miami Beach Burger King Worst in Nation? - 6/26/2013 10:13:00 AM
· Fighting Entrenched Bureacracy in Miami Beach - 4/22/2013 6:36:00 AM
· Seeking Mark Barenboim - 4/16/2013 6:24:00 AM
· Requiem for a South Beach pizzeria - 4/11/2013 8:35:00 AM
· Judge Judy and Miami Beach Magistrate Babak Movahedi - 4/6/2013 7:23:00 AM
· Internal Affairs Addresses Public Corruption in Miami Beach - 3/30/2013 6:29:00 AM
· Miami Beach City Attorney's Denial - 3/7/2013 7:40:00 AM
· Notes: Miami Dade Ethics Commission Meeting With Problematic Bloggers - 3/6/2013 9:56:00 AM
· Miami Beach Police Department cleans up South Beach - 1/16/2013 10:10:00 AM
· Indispensable Role of State Tax Law in Federal Tax Questions - 11/6/2012 7:19:00 AM
· Lady Rothstein's Shoes - 10/13/2012 6:01:00 AM
· Miami Beach Police Department Reform - 9/13/2012 7:37:00 AM
· Is Miami Beach Culture Stupid? - 9/11/2012 6:03:00 AM
· Showdown at High Noon - Miami Beach City Attorneys v Special Magistrates - 9/1/2012 7:30:00 AM
· Miami Beach City Attorney's Professional Bigotry - 8/18/2012 6:33:00 AM
· MIami Beach CIty Attorney's Cause Celebre - 8/8/2012 6:51:00 AM
· Miami Beach City Attorney Balks at Simple Question - 8/7/2012 6:14:00 AM
· Getting Ahead of the Job Con at the ICON South Beach - 7/3/2012 6:00:00 AM
· Getting Ahead of The Job Con at the Continuum South Beach - 7/2/2012 6:48:00 AM
· Justice in Journalism & The Kansas City Star - 6/7/2012 7:09:00 AM
· Important Meeting Regarding South Beach Urban Week - 6/3/2012 7:32:00 AM
· Try Working With Miami Beach Compliance - 6/3/2012 7:19:00 AM
· Miami Beach City Manager on the Grill in Corruption Scandal - 5/8/2012 9:46:00 AM
· The Towing Mafia - South Beach Tow Redux - 3/17/2012 7:23:00 AM
· South Beach Active Health Fitness Club - The Jaguar is in the house! - 12/28/2011 3:59:00 PM
· Why A Birdseed Spell May Not Work - 12/3/2011 7:23:00 AM
· White Paper Miami Beach Police Department Reform - 11/30/2011 10:42:00 AM
· An Anonymous Wicked Clown Saga - 11/17/2011 9:04:00 AM
· Senator Marco Rubio and The Cuban Thing - 10/28/2011 11:00:00 AM
· Death by Muck - 10/27/2011 12:14:00 PM
· Electronic Access to Important Case Records Requested - 7/23/2011 10:52:00 AM
· My Thriving South Beach Restaurant Review Business - 7/12/2011 6:36:00 AM
· Crunch Fitness Outrageous Bankruptcy Proceedings - 6/17/2011 8:52:00 AM
· Crunch Fitness Bats and Vultures - 6/16/2011 6:38:00 AM
· Crunch Fitness and The Golden Squash - 6/14/2011 7:07:00 AM
· Crunch Fitness Ballyswindled and Overleveraged - 6/10/2011 8:39:00 AM
· Welcome to McCrunch Fitness - 6/9/2011 8:16:00 AM
· South Beach Tipping Point - Urban Week Police Shooting - 6/1/2011 8:06:00 AM
· The Future of Health Clubs - 5/18/2011 8:16:00 AM
· SOUTH BEACH CANDO Blighted Hotel Opportunity - 2/3/2011 9:22:00 AM
· Florida Governor Rick Scott and The Florida Press - 1/21/2011 9:53:00 AM
· Miami-Dade County Appearance of Impropriety Persists - 12/30/2010 7:46:00 AM
· Billions Wasted by Community Colleges - 12/16/2010 10:46:00 AM
· Buffalo Wings & Rings South Beach - 11/19/2010 11:01:00 AM
· Documents Show McClatchy Paper Lied in Allen Stanford Series - 10/27/2010 11:17:00 AM
· Miami Daily proves it is a slander sheet again - 10/20/2010 8:47:00 AM
· In Whom Can We Trust in Florida's Gubernatorial Race? - 10/18/2010 3:17:00 PM
· Edna Jane Favreau and Charlie Crist - 10/14/2010 8:01:00 AM
· Affidavit of Paul Crissinger in re judicial abuse of Edna Jane Favreau - 10/11/2010 3:57:00 PM
· Edna Jane Favreau was in the wrong court - 10/9/2010 8:39:00 AM
· Good Lawyer and Good Judge Wanted in Florida - 9/26/2010 7:40:00 AM
· Back to The Future of Tennis - 9/16/2010 10:01:00 AM
· Audit of the Audit of Bollettieri's Miami Beach Tennis Center - 8/4/2010 7:50:00 AM
· Why get rid of Miami Beach's Gonzalez Administration? - 7/15/2010 9:16:00 AM
· Mayor Bower leaves Miami Beach in the lurch - 7/7/2010 7:54:00 AM
· The Free Press & The Future of Tennis - 6/24/2010 3:32:00 PM
· Allen Stanford's Miami Trust Office - 6/11/2010 2:45:00 PM
· Black Week South Beach - 6/7/2010 8:22:00 AM
· Med Pizza South Beach - 6/5/2010 11:09:00 AM
· Allen Stanford and Alex Sink - 5/15/2010 7:20:00 AM
· South Beach Civic Circle or City Clique? - 2/25/2010 3:49:00 PM
· Reforming The Florida Bar - 2/12/2010 12:33:00 PM
· Contempt for The Florida Bar and Supreme Court - 12/23/2009 9:26:00 AM
· The Pickle Chiseler - 12/1/2009 8:00:00 AM
· To Hell with the Credit Rating Agencies - 10/28/2009 8:11:00 AM
· Letter in re The Florida Clam Bar - 10/17/2009 8:11:00 AM
· Where was The Florida Bar in all this? - 10/15/2009 9:05:00 AM
· The New Chase Bank - 9/5/2009 8:16:00 AM
· Greenberg Traurig & The Stanford Fraud - 8/31/2009 8:48:00 AM
· The Stanford Fraud & The Florida Bar - 8/27/2009 6:48:00 AM
· For the Integrity of the Integrated Florida Bar - 7/20/2009 6:08:00 AM
· The Fraudster, The Firm, and The Florida Bar - 7/8/2009 7:36:00 AM
· Scientific Friendship - 6/27/2009 8:52:00 AM
· On Open Publishing via Themestream.com by David Arthur Walters - 6/22/2009 6:48:00 AM
· Helium’s English Is Not Good Enough By HE™ - 6/18/2009 7:18:00 AM
· A Much-Heralded Cock's Life in South Beach - 6/8/2009 6:28:00 AM
· Queen Latifah's SOBE Fatburger - 6/6/2009 6:43:00 AM
· Back to the Future of Journalism by David Arthur Walters - 6/1/2009 8:32:00 AM
· Topical Helium - 5/7/2009 10:25:00 AM
· Introduction to the Helium.com scheme - 5/2/2009 6:31:00 AM
· Who is to blame? - 4/18/2009 7:38:00 AM
· In Praise of Dividends - 3/24/2009 2:03:00 PM
· White Niggas - 2/21/2009 8:42:00 AM
· Chairman Benanke's Dream - 2/14/2009 7:57:00 AM
· Housing Rescue – Abolish PAL Rules & Accelerate Depreciation - 12/18/2008 8:41:00 AM
· The Paulson Plans - 10/18/2008 7:51:00 AM
· Foul Language for Investment Bankers - 9/27/2008 6:52:00 AM
· We do not NEED Wall Street - 9/23/2008 3:37:00 PM
· Bank Run! - 9/19/2008 7:41:00 AM
· Reminder: Beware of Speaking in Tongues in High Places - 9/18/2008 7:48:00 AM
· Republican Seachange in Hawaii - 9/12/2008 4:26:00 PM
· Not a maverick at all - 9/8/2008 5:52:00 AM
· We Were Betrayed by the Media - 7/30/2008 3:03:00 PM
· Right is above Might - 4/5/2008 10:46:00 AM
· Censorship Perfected by the Kansas City Star - 4/5/2008 10:26:00 AM
· The Arrogant and Dismissive Times - 3/30/2008 3:49:00 PM
· Justice or Death - 3/29/2008 5:14:00 PM
· Against War-Mongering Liars - 3/29/2008 1:16:00 PM
· Kansas City's Color Line - 3/29/2008 8:23:00 AM
· Referendum Madness in Miami Beach - 10/23/2007 4:46:00 AM
· Quacking Duck - Artist Housing in South Beach - 10/5/2007 8:29:00 AM
· White Trash Need Not Apply - 9/10/2007 8:47:00 AM
· Miami Beach House of Equivocation - Affordable Housing for Artists - 9/3/2007 8:14:00 AM
· Portrait of The Struggling CANDO Artist - 7/23/2007 8:42:00 AM
· Miami Herald Muckraking - 6/25/2007 11:43:00 AM
· America's Future Lies On The Water - 5/2/2007 9:44:00 AM
· The Compassionate Heart of America - 1/22/2007 10:36:00 AM
· President Bush a Revisionist Historian - 12/15/2006 5:32:00 AM
· Letter to President Bush on Victory - 12/15/2006 5:30:00 AM
· Smoking Gun Letter to President Bush - 12/15/2006 5:25:00 AM
· Christmas Letter to President of Iran - 12/11/2006 10:25:00 AM
· Benedictine Deconstruction - 10/2/2006 12:10:00 PM
· Condotelworlde - 9/10/2006 10:22:00 AM
· I Was Heartcrunched By Crunch Fitness - 9/1/2006 6:53:00 AM
· World's Worst Burger King  - 8/30/2006 5:50:00 AM
· Ideal Customer Service and Support - 7/3/2006 6:44:00 AM
· The Man and his Pigs in Hawaii - 6/24/2006 8:14:00 AM
· Note on the New Fascism - 6/23/2006 6:33:00 AM
· Tundra Puta Releases Poem! - 6/16/2006 4:39:00 PM
· Israel an Idol? - 6/12/2006 9:24:00 AM
· Indian Woman Bills USA for Reparations - 6/2/2006 8:36:00 AM
· Get your free doctorate in political science! - 5/15/2006 11:51:00 AM
· Ford's Anti-Terrorism Proviso - 5/13/2006 7:48:00 AM
· Be Not Thus Deceived - 5/12/2006 6:40:00 AM
· The Medusa Do - 4/24/2006 9:34:00 AM
· The Presiding Spirit Has No Reason to Think - 4/6/2006 4:54:00 PM
· Teflon Bush? - 3/18/2006 8:14:00 AM
· Miami Beach Official Declares Journalist Crazy - 3/13/2006 10:21:00 AM
· Malicious Dissent - 2/25/2006 10:26:00 AM
· The Invisible Indivisible Nation - 2/25/2006 8:50:00 AM
· On The True Principles of Patriotism - 2/25/2006 8:17:00 AM
· The Patriotic Pledge - 2/25/2006 6:54:00 AM
· The High Oath - 2/18/2006 6:41:00 AM
· Tomatoes Live In The Now - 2/17/2006 9:57:00 AM
· Jayhawk History - 2/17/2006 5:07:00 AM
· Heresy Might Be The True Religion - 2/8/2006 3:03:00 PM
· Bringing Homeless People Home - 2/6/2006 7:43:00 AM
· Mister Netwit's Faction - 1/28/2006 7:20:00 AM
· Condemned to Freedom - 1/27/2006 4:11:00 PM
· Am I Blind? - 1/20/2006 1:39:00 PM
· The Compassionate Heart of America - 1/20/2006 11:27:00 AM
· I am a Gringo American - 1/6/2006 6:32:00 AM
· The Most Important Subject in the World - 12/23/2005 7:10:00 AM
· I am I - 12/23/2005 6:21:00 AM
· Editor Rejects Masterpiece! - 12/19/2005 6:33:00 AM
· Crawl Space Revisited - 12/15/2005 8:22:00 AM
· Top Real Estate Woman - 12/4/2005 10:18:00 AM
· Kabbalah Krackpot? - 12/1/2005 5:11:00 PM
· Michel Carel on Contemporary Art - 12/1/2005 3:07:00 PM
· Letter to President Bush re Historical Revisionism - 11/13/2005 4:41:00 PM
· Under God is no laughing matter - 11/12/2005 9:06:00 AM
· The Administration is Drunk With Power - 11/11/2005 5:04:00 PM
· Where are the Americans at home? - 11/8/2005 3:55:00 PM
· Quranic Retaliation - 11/6/2005 11:51:00 AM
· Having Faith in Nothing - 11/6/2005 10:44:00 AM
· El Trabajo es un Derecho - 10/5/2005 3:56:00 PM
· The Rise of American Hypocrisy - 9/18/2005 10:20:00 AM
· Diane's Transition no a traves - 9/5/2005 7:02:00 AM
· We Say They Say - 8/24/2005 4:58:00 PM
· The Sacred Family - 8/14/2005 4:48:00 PM
· Still Mountain and Providing Nourishment - 7/18/2005 7:27:00 AM
· Authorsden Author Accused of Pornographic Displays - 7/16/2005 9:23:00 AM
· Gentrification is a Dirty Word - 7/12/2005 8:46:00 AM
· Moving the Ten Commandments - 6/28/2005 7:50:00 AM
· Seditious Parenting - 6/20/2005 11:52:00 AM
· Rumsfeld Reveals Lawless Policy - 6/18/2005 8:38:00 AM
· When will They stop lying? - 6/14/2005 8:34:00 AM
· The Solution in Iraq - 6/14/2005 8:06:00 AM
· Remembing the Sons of Reagan - 6/13/2005 6:12:00 AM
· Darwin Leon's Manifesto - 6/1/2005 9:14:00 AM
· The Gray Future of Ten Dollars per Hour - 5/23/2005 11:14:00 AM
· The Jingo Press and The Untied Hates of America - 5/19/2005 7:22:00 AM
· Reading the Kansas City Star - 5/14/2005 7:03:00 AM
· The Low Brow Race Arrives! - 5/5/2005 2:13:00 PM
· President Eric Rudolph - 5/2/2005 11:58:00 AM
· Multitasking Stupidity - 3/9/2005 10:22:00 AM
· A truly conservative Social Security solution - 2/17/2005 7:26:00 AM
· Euthanasia recommended for Social Security - 2/4/2005 6:40:00 AM
· To Rakel With Love - 1/21/2005 7:14:00 AM
· Art Judges in South Beach Florida - 1/17/2005 9:21:00 AM
· Down with Artistic Urbanism! Up with the Art of Living! - 1/13/2005 5:18:00 PM
· Artébassé - Bass Museum of Art Exposed Again - 1/12/2005 1:53:00 PM
· A Young Lion Appears in the Brush - 12/31/2004 10:55:00 AM
· i am I - 12/20/2004 1:47:00 PM
· Cuban dancers defect to Vegas bright lights - 11/15/2004 8:28:00 AM

You can also search authors by alphabetical listing: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Featured Authors | New to AuthorsDen? | Add AuthorsDen to your Site
Share AD with your friends | Need Help? | About us


Problem with this page?   Report it to AuthorsDen

© AuthorsDen, Inc. All rights reserved.