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The future of Pakistan agriculture
Thursday, August 23, 2007  7:43:00 AM

by Farzana H Panhwar



Education/Training
Pakistan is situated between the latitudes of 24° and 37° north and longitudes of 61° to 75° east, stretching over 1 600 kilometres from north to south and 885 kilometres from east to west, with a total area of 796 095 square kilometres.

The future of Pakistan agriculture

Farzana Panhwar

Farzanapanhwar.yahoo.com

farzanapanhwar.hotmail.com


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General.




Pakistan is situated between the latitudes of 24° and 37° north and longitudes of 61° to 75° east, stretching over 1 600 kilometres from north to south and 885 kilometres from east to west, with a total area of 796 095 square kilometres. It has a subtropical and semi-arid climate. The annual rainfall ranges from 125 mm in the extreme southern plains to 500 to 900 mm in the sub-mountainous and northern plains. About 70 percent of the total rainfall occurs as heavy downpours in summer from July to September, originating from the summer monsoons, and 30 percent in winter. Summers, except in the mountainous areas, are very hot with a maximum temperature of more than 40 °C, while the minimum temperature in winter is a few degrees above the freezing point.







According to the usual Pakistani classification irrigation consists of:

Government canals: 6.38 million ha in 2001/02, of which 58 percent in the Punjab and 29 percent in Sindh province;

private canas: 0.43 million ha, of which 81 percent are in NWFP;

tubewells: 3.45 million ha, of which 82 percent are in Punjab province;

open wells: 0.2 million ha, of which 55 percent are in Punjab province;

canals and tubewells: 7.24 million ha, all of them in Punjab province;

other means: 0.18 million ha.

The total irrigated area is 18 million ha. About 4 million ha is rainfed. The main irrigated crops are wheat, rice, sugar cane and cotton. Owing to inadequate water availability in winter (storage capacity is too small) and at the beginning and end of summer, cropping intensity is exceptionally low. According to a World Bank report, Pakistan does not have enough reservoir capacity in its irrigation system to store seasonal waters.

According to the Soil Survey of Pakistan (Mian and Javed, 1993), 2.8 million hectares of irrigated land is affected by salinity ranging from patchy salinity to dense saline sodic soils.

http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/007/y5460e/y5460e06.htm




Introduction

In Pakistan the total population in 2004 was 152.1.million.Population growth (annual %) was 2.4.Literacy rate, adult male (% of males age 15 and above in 2004) was 61.7.Net primary enrolment (% of relvant age group in 2000) was 59.1. (World Bank)

Surface area (sq.km) 796.1 thousand. Forest (1,000 sq.km) was 23,610.0.Deforestation (average annual % 1990-2000) was 1.5.Internal fresh water resources per capita (cubic meter) in 2003 was 350.3.Energy use per capita (kg of oil equivalent) in 2000 was 459.0. (World Bank)

In the year 1999-2000 the area under food crops was 12507 thousand hectares while its production was 24849 thousand tonnes. The area under cash crops was 4090 thousand hectares while its production was 50292 thousand tonnes, The area under pulses was 1538 thousand tonnes and its production was 902thousand tonnes. The area under edible seeds was 632 thousand hectares while its production was 3923 thousand tonnes. ( Agriculture statistic of Pakistan 1999-2000)

In the year 1999-2000 the area under vegetables (excluding potatoes and sugar beet) the area in Pakistan was 218.0 thousand hectares while its production was 2889.3 thousand tonnes.For the same year The area under all fruit in Pakistan was 639.0 thousand hectares while its production was 6152.6 thousand tonnes in Pakistan (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan 1999-2000).




The details of agriculture in Pakistan



In the year 2000 Pakistan population was 138.1 million which increase 152.1 million in 2004.Annual growth was 2.4% (World Bank) The total surface area was 796.1 thousand sq.km in 2003.Forest (1,000 sq.km) in 2000 was 23,610.0 Deforestation ( average annual % 1990-2000 was 1.5%.GDP growth annual 4.3% was 2000 while it increase 6.4% in 2004.Value of added in agriculture (% of GDP) was 26.7% in 2000 while it decrease to 22.7% in 2004.( World Development Indicator database, Aug.2005).GNI per capita (Affas method ,US$ is 690$.About 33% of population below national poverty line. child malnutrition (% of children under 5) was 35. The average annual growth in agriculture in 1985-95 was 4.1 which increase 7.5 in 2005. (World Bank).The 0 to 5 feet or 152 cm water table depth in 1999 was 4431 thousand hectares , while the 0 to 10 feet or 305 cmon water table depth in 1999 was 8358 thousand hectares. Extent of Saline/sodic soil in thousand hectares in 1999 was 6173.5, cultivated land in 1999 was 2803.8 and uncultivated land was 3369.7 thousand hectare.







In Pakistan total cropped area in 2001-2002 was 22.10 million hectare which increased in 2003-2004 was 23.04 million hectare. Wheat production in 2001-2002 was 18.23 million tonnes while in 2004-2005 was 21.61 million tonnes. Cotton production in 2001-2002 was 10.61 million bales which increase in 14.27 bales in 2004-05.Rice production in 2001-2002 was 3.88 million tonnes which increase 5.03 million tonnes in 2004-05 Sugar cane production in 2001-02 was 48.04 million tonnes which reduced in 2004-05 was 47.24 million tonnes.

The land geographical area was 79.61 million hectares. Total cropped area in 2000-2001 was 22.10 million hectare increased 23.04 million hectares in 2004-05.

The area under wheat in 2000-01 was 8,181 thousand hectare while in 2004-05 was 8,358 thousand hectares. The area under rice in 2000-01 was 2,377 thousand hectare, which increase 2,520 thousand hectare in 2004-05.

The area under Bajra in 2000-01 was 390 thousand hectares to reduced 343 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under Jowar 2000-01 was 354 thousand hectares to increased 308 thousand hectare in 2004-05.The area under maize in 2000-01 was 944 thousand hectares which increase to 982 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under barley was 113 thousand hectares to reduced 93 thousand hectare in 2004-05.Total food grains in 2000-01 was 12,359 thousand hectares to 2004-05 was 12,604 thousand hectares .Area under Gram in 2000-01 was 905 thousand hectares to increased 1,094 thousand hectares, area under sugar cane was almost the same as 961 thousand hectares in 2000-01 to 966 thousand hectares in 2004-05 .The area under Rapeseed, mustard and canola was 272 thousand hectare in 2000-01, while it reduced to 257 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under cotton was in 2000-01 was 2, 928 which increased to 257 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under potatoes in 2000-01 was 102 thousand hectares to 112 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under onion was 106 thousand hectares in 2000-01 which increased to 128 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under onion was 106 thousand hectares in 2000-01 which increased to 128 thousand hectares in 2004-05.Area under chilli was 85 thousand hectares in 2000-01 which reduced to 49 thousand hectares in 2004-05.The area under tobacco was 46 thousand hectares in 2000-01 which increase to 51 thousand hectares




Production of crops

The production of wheat in 2000-01 was 19,024 thousand tonnes which increase in 2004-05 to 21,612 thousand tonnes .The rice production in 2000-01 was 4,803 thousand tonnes while in 2004-05 was 5,025 thousand tonnes. the production of Bajra in 2000-01 was 199 thousand tonnes which reduced to 193 thousand tonnesin 2004-05. The production of Jawar in 2000-01 was 219 thousand tonnes which reduces to 186 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.The production of maize 2000-01was 1,643 thousand tonnes which increase 2,797 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.The total food grains in 2000-01 was 25,987 thousand tonnes which increase to 29,905 thousand tonnes in 20004-05.Gram production was 397 thousand tonnes was 2000-01 which increase 868 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.Sugarcane production was 43,606 thousand tonnes which increase into 47,244 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.Rapeseed, mustard and canola in 2000-01 was 1,825 thousand tonnes in 2004-05. Which incrase into 2,426 thousand tonnes .Potatoes in 2000-01 was 1,666 thousand tonnes which increase 2,025 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.Onion production was 2000-01 was 1,563 thousand tonnes which increase to 1,765 thousand tonnes. Chillies production in 2000-01 was 175 which decrease to 90 thousand tonnes.Tobacco production in 2000-01 was 85 thousand tonnes which increase to 100 thousand tonnes in 2004-05.




Yield per hectare.




The wheat yield in 2000-01 was 2,325 kg/hectare, which increase to 2,586 kg/hectares.The rice yield in 2000-01 was 2,021 kg/hectares which decrease 1,994 kg/hectares.The Bajra yield in 2000-01 was 510 kg/hectare while in 2004-05 was 563 kg/hectares.The Jowar in 2000-01 was 619 kg/hecater which increase 989 kg/hectares .Gram yield in 2000-01 was 45.4 kg/hectares. Which increase 48.9 kg/hectares. Rapeseed, Mustard and canola in 2000-01 was 849 kg/hectares which was same in 2003-04.Cotton yield in 2000-01 was 623 kg/hectares which increase to 760 kg/hjectares .the yield of potatoes in 2000-01 was 16.3 kg/hectares, which incrase 18.1 kg/hectares in 2004-05.Onion yield in 2000-01 was 14.7 kg/hectares which reduced to 13.8 kg/hectares .chillies yield in 2000-01 was 2,059 which decrease 1, 837 kg/hectares.The tobacco in 2000-01 was 1,848 kg/hectares which increase 1,989 kg/hectres.

(Source Federal Bureau of static, provincial agriculture department.)




Livestock population.

The cattle population in 1993-94 was 17814 thousand head which increase 2000-01 was 22424 thousand head .Buffaloes population in 1993-94 was 19219 thousand head which increase to 23335 thousand heads in 2000-01.Sheep population in 1993-94 was 28358 thousand heads which increase 24236 thousand heads in 2000-01.The goat population in 1993-94 was 41957 thousand head was increase 24236 thousands head in 2000-01.The goat population in 1993-94 was 41957 thousand head was increase in 49140 thousand heads. The cattle’s in 1993-94 was 1119 thousand heads which reduce in 767 thousand heads.

Estimated milk production in 1993-94 Gross production was 18006 thousand tonnes which increase in 2000-01 was 32659 thousand tonnes.




Estimated meat and egg production thousand tonnes/million No.

In 1993-94 beef meat was 887 which increase 1009 thousand tonnes/million Nos .Mutton production in 1993-94 was 817 thousand tonnes/million Nos. Which reduced to 660 thousand tonnes/million Nos in 2000-01.Poultry meat was 206 thousand tonnes/million to 333 thousand tonnes/million in 1990-000.Total meat production in 1993-94 was 2000 tonnes/million Nos to 20008 in 2000-01.(Food, agriculture and livestock division)

Fish production
In 1987 fish production was 427.7 thousand tonnes which increase 621.7 Thousand tonnes in 1993.

(Ref: Agriculture statistics of Pakistan 2000-01.Food Agriculture and Livestock division. Government of Pakistan. Ministry of food Agriculture and livestock)




Agriculture picture by comparison of 2001-02 with 2003-04 statistics



If we compare the statistics of 2001-02 with 2004-05 it shows that wheat, cotton and rice production increase while sugar cane production reduced although the total cultivated area is the same, but agriculture land is reduced, total cropped area in million hectares increased. total saline/sodic soil was 6173.5 thousand hectares.

The area under rice, maize , total food grain, gram, cotton, potato, onion, tobacco increase while area under Jowar, bajra, rape, mustard and canola and chillies decrease.

The production of wheat, rice maize, total food grains, cotton, potato, onion and tobacco increase while Bajra, jowar, barley, rape, mustard , canola and chillies decrease.

Yield of Bajra, barley, gram, sugar cane and cotton increase, while wheat, rapeseed, mustard and canola and tobacco remain the same and rice, jowar, onion and chillies kg/hectares decrease.

In livestock population buffalo is more than cattle and sheep. Milk consumption by human is highest with buffalo than cow, goat and sheep. The meat production is more is highest beef than mutton, goat, poultry meat and sheep. The fish production was541.9 thousand tonnes in 1995.




The future trends of Pakistan agriculture.




Pakistan staple food is wheat, rice and maize .If we will see the statistics ,the production of wheat, rice and maize not increase as compare to the growing population needs. This trend show that Pakistan still using an old varieties of agriculture commodities which result into stagnant growth.

In order to meet the future requirement of the country .Pakistan need to change crop varieties which are high yielding, resistance to insects, pest ,more nutritional value and adopted to the salinity and drought conditions.

The live stock sector in Pakistan is also very weak .The dietary habbit shows that people are now consuming more protein than vegetables .It means we need livestock with more meat and quickly fattening animals .The milk consumption also show change its trend. Due to more mass and media bring conciseness among the people , people now using milk having low fat, this show Pakistan buffalo milk consumption will reduce and more use of cattle and goat milk in future.




Future crop varieties in Pakistan




These new varieties have been found suitable for Pakistan as they are high yielding, cold tolerant, drought tolerant , salt and disease resistant,.







Hard Red Winter Wheat Varieties

Variety of Wheat
Characteristics

AgriPro's Big Dawg
Long coleoptile. Good Straw strength.

AgriPro's Coronado
Excellent straw strength. Good grazing potential. Good tolerance to wheat streak.

AgriPro's Cutter
Dual Purpose with Disease Resistance. Excellent yield & forage. Excellent drought tolerance. Fall cover is very good. Leaf rust resistant, Wheat streak tolerant.

AgriPro's Jagalene
Excellent "All Purpose" wheat. Widely adapted. Excellent drought tolerance. Great disease package. Excellent milling & baking quality. Very good winterhardiness. Large kernels & high test weight. Name recognizable pedigree: Jagger and Abilene

AgriPro's Longhorn
Long coleoptile. Excellent grazer. Plant early for pasture. Beardless.

AgriPro's Ogallala
Excellent yield potential, both dryland and irrigation. Consistent yielder.

AgriPro's Tam 111
Developed by Texas A & M and marketed by AgriPro. Good drought tolerance. Moderate resistance to stripe rust. Very consistent dryland performer.

AgriPro's Thunderbolt
Very good yield potential. Good stress tolerance.

AgriPro's AP502CL
A Clearfield wheat. AgriPro's first Clearfield release. Tam 110 with Clearfield traits that enable growers to control broadleaf and grass weeds, including jointed goatgrass, wild oats, cheatgrass and ryegrass. Use Beyond herbicide for weed/grass control.

Jagger
Excellent yield potential. Early maturing. Poor winterhardiness.

Overley
New variety from K-State for central and eastern Kansas and Oklahoma areas. Leaf Rust, Stem Rust and Stripe rust resistance. Excellent yield potential. Moderate acid soil tolerance. Fair winterhardiness.

T81
Trio Research variety. High yield potential.Good tillering. For irrigation south of I-70.

T812
Trio Research variety. Dryland production. Good winterhardiness.

2137
Very good yield potential. Good tolerance to wheat streak.

2145
K-State release for Northcentral and Central KS. Susceptible to wheat streak mosaic. Resistant to leaf rust. Moderately resistant to stripe rust. Medium maturity.

HARD WHITE WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES:

Trego
High yield potential. Sprouting tolerance. Intermediate tolerance to wheat streak.





Paramount Seed Farms
http://www.paramountseedfarms.com/wheat.htm




2004

Infinity. High-yielding, high protein variety with very strong overall performance. AAFC Swift Current.

CDC Go. High-yielding, medium maturity variety with high test weight and intermediate disease resistance. U of S CDC.

CDC Osler. High-yielding, medium-early maturity variety with standard height, targeted at Parkland production. U of S CDC.

Snowbird. First variety of this new class, which offers preferred colour and higher flour extract. AAFC Winnipeg.

Kanata. Similar to Snowbird, with slightly different quality profile. AAFC Winnipeg.

HY475. Earlier maturity and higher test weight than AC Vista. Seven percent higher yield than Snowbird. AAFC Swift Current.

HY476. Features new gene for resistance to common bunt and higher yield than Snowbird. AAFC Swift Current.

Strongfield. Touted as a successor to AC Avonlea, with lower cadmium content, higher strength, seven percent higher yield, slightly higher test weight and similar disease profile. AAFC Swift Current.

CDC Walrus. Softer, easier-grinding wheat than Glenlea, with three to seven percent higher yield. U of S CDC.

Radiant. High yielding variety with good drought tolerance and resistance to the wheat curl mite, which carries wheat streak mosaic. AAFC Lethbridge.

2003

Lillian. Sawfly-resistant wheat with higher grain yield and protein potential than AC Abbey. AAFC Swift Current.

2002

Lovitt. Early maturing, leaf rust resistant AC Barrie-type with pre-harvest sprouting resistance. AAFC Swift Current.

CDC Rama. Yield and maturity similar to Glenlea, with much higher protein content and improved disease resistance. U of S CDC.

CDC Buteo. Yield similar to CDC Osprey, with shorter straw than CDC Kestrel, and good lodging resistance. U of S CDC.

2001

Harvest. High yielding variety with improved sprouting resistance. One day earlier maturing than the checks. AAFC Winnipeg.

2000

Superb. Very high-yielding semi-dwarf with short, strong straw and good sprouting resistance. AAFC Winnipeg.

AC 2000. Improved milling properties and gluten strength compared to AC Karma and AC Vista. AAFC Swift Current.

1999

CDC Bounty. High yield potential and higher protein percentage than Neepawa. U of S CDC.

Alikat. Adapted to acidic soils and agronomically similar to Neepawa. U of A .

AC Napoleon. Features low cadmium accumulation, along with higher yield and stronger gluten than AC Avonlea in the Black Soil Zone. AAFC Winnipeg.

AC Glenavon. Slightly higher yield, earlier maturity and improved test weight compared to Glenlea. AAFC Winnipeg.

CDC Raptor. High-yielding, winter hardy, strong strawed variety, with superior stem and leaf rust resistance. U of S CDC.

1998

AC Abbey. First semi-dwarf, solid stemmed wheat in this class. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Corrine. Superior sprouting resistance to Glenlea. AAFC Winnipeg.

AC Falcon. First winter wheat for Western Canada with leaf and stem rust resistance. U of S CDC.

AC Bellatrix. First winter wheat for Western Canada with common bunt resistance. AAFC Lethbridge.

1997

AC Intrepid. High yield, early maturity, strong straw and very large kernels. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Intrepid. High yield, early maturity, strong straw and very large kernels. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Avonlea. High yield, high protein, shorter and stronger straw than Kyle, with improved yellow colour and good cooking quality. AAFC Swift Current.

Laser. Higher yielding than Wildcat. U of A .

AC Tempest. Replacement for the southern Alberta variety AC Readymade, which corrects the low flour yield problem of that variety. Has stronger straw, high protein and moderate bunt resistance. AAFC Lethbridge.

1996

AC Splendor. Very early maturity, very high protein and very good leaf rust resistance. AAFC Winnipeg.

AC Elsa. Higher yield than AC Barrie, with high protein, and improved leaf spot resistance. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Cadillac. High yield, high protein, large kernels, very high test weight. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Morse. Improvements to yield, quality and gluten strength. AAFC Winnipeg.

AC Vista. First in class with sprouting resistance similar to red varieties. AAFC Swift Current.

AC Crystal. Much stronger gluten combined with good performance characteristics. AAFC Swift Current.

New Wheat Varieties for Western Canada

http://www.westerngrains.com/wheat/w_varieties.html




CDC Teal (CWRS)




high yields and excellent quality consistently places CDC Teal in the highest grades

strong straw of moderate height, good resistance to lodging - stands up well for easier harvest

resistant to leaf and stem rust, moderate resistance to loose smut and bunt

early maturity (2 days earlier than Katepwa)

AC Cadillac (CWRS)




a CWRS with high yield, high protein and an exceptionally large kernel

high test weight and good red colour combined with high yield and protien make it the baker's choice










AC Snowbird (Hard White Wheat)




good lodging resistance

maturity (1 day later than AC Barrie)

excellent yield potential (13% higher than AC Barrie in Manitoba); similar in yield to AC Barrie in Saskatchewan

similar in quality to CWRS wheat but has a white seed coat color

resistant to prevalent races of leaf rust

moderately resistant to stem rust, loose smut & common root rot

fair resistance to bunt

IP contracts available




AC Vista (CPSW)




a unique CPS white wheat

superior in protein and gluten content to AC Karma

earlier maturity with better pre-harvest sprouting resistance

chart topping yields as feed and a kernel as hard as red wheat for ease of processing

strong milling qualities




AC Avonlea (CWAD)




a premium new durum wheat

shorter, stronger straw than Plenty and Kyle

higher protein content than all current registered durum varieties

higher yellow pigment color for better pasta quality

similar in maturity to Kyle, Plenty, and AC Morse

good disease resistance

provides consistently high yields

Fenton Seed Farm Ltd.

SEED VARIETIES AVAILABLE
For the 2005-06 Crop Year

http://www.fentonseeds.com/Inventory.htm




Wheat Varieties BRAVO: (Released in 1999)

A beardless white chaff variety, it is a very early heading cultivar with excellent test weight; averaging 2 lbs/bu above 'Hopewell'. Bravo is similar to Hopewell in plant height but has improved straw strength. Bravo has returned excellent milling and baking scores, has shown good resistance to leaf rust and excellent resistance to powdery mildew. Bravo is a solid overall variety.




HONEY: (Released in 2000)

A bearded white chaff variety, Honey has averaged three days earlier than Hopewell but two days later than Bravo. It therefore should be classified as a medium early type. It is slightly shorter than either Hopewell, Bravo, or Pioneer 2540. Honey has very good leaf rust resistance and excellent mildew resistance. It has shown excellent milling and baking scores. It has excellent winter hardiness and has an average test weight which is 1 lb/bu above Hopewell.




ROSCO:

A beardless, white chaffed variety, Rosco has excellent straw strength and winter hardiness and is medium early. Rosco has slightly out yielded Honey in three years of replicated tests. It has excellent milling and baking quality. Rosco has excellent leaf rust resistance and moderately good mildew resistance.




LISBO:

Beardless and white chaffed, Lisbo has better test weight than Rosco and Hopewell, close to that of Honey. Lisbo is slightly shorter than Rosco and a day or so later than Rosco in heading. It has excellent mildew and leaf rust resistance.




VICAR:

Beardless and white chaffed, Vicar is medium early line, very short and stiff with an excellent field appearance and excellent disease resistance. Milling and baking quality are acceptable. Test weight is good averaging 1 lb/bu above Hopewell.




LASER :

Beardless and white chaffed. Laser is an extremely early heading line with high yield potential and very high test weight. It appears to be a quick ripener. It has good milling and baking quality. Laser is a newer experimental line not yet tested extensively but shows excellent promise.




EAGLE, IVORY & ALPHA :

These three lines are the newest, extremely promising lines emanating from our breeding pipeline. They showed extremely high straw strength and yield in 2002 trials; out yielding our best check varieties by 10-15%.




VALOR :

A soft red winter wheat variety developed by sunbeam extract co. And made available for nonexclusive licensing and branding by various companies. Valor, therefore may be available to the public under several different names. Valor has exhibited extremely high yield potential under most environments tested except in the mid-south. It has excellent powdery mildew resistance, is midseason in maturity and medium in height. This beardless variety has excellent winter hardiness and straw strength.




HUSKY :

Beardless medium height, but has shown some unevenness has has excellent "field appeal" and a robust growth habit with large heads. It is medium in height and midseason in maturity. Heads have almost no tip awn at all. Is moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Has excellent yield and test weight record.




DAISY :

A soft red winter wheat variety developed by Sunbeam Extract Co. and recently licensed exclusively to Central Ohio Seed Testing, Inc. (a subsidiary of Ohio Seed Improvement Assoc.) The variety may be renamed for marketing. Daisy is a high yielding variety with excellent resistance to lodging. It is beardless and averages 2 days earlier in maturity than Hopewell and is about 1 inch shorter in stature. Daisy has among the best milling and baking qualities of all varieties.




TOTEM :

Beardless, very erect and short. Totem is very early, has good powdery mildew resistance and excellent straw strength. It is blue green in foliage color. Still in early stages of testing, but looks to be a very promising new line.




DARBY :

Beardless, but with long tip awns. Yellow-green, very large heads with purplish anthers. Though slightly tall it has excellent straw strength. Brown chaffed at maturity.




JIFFY :

Jiffy is a very early maturing variety being offered to private seed companies for branding. It has the same maturity as Patterson and is about one inch shorter, but has considerably higher yield potential. This beardless variety has excellent test weight, straw strength, winter hardiness and is moderately resistant to powdery mildew




Harpo :

Beardless, slightly tall and shows moderate height variation even thought it appears pure. Has shown little spindle streak mosaic virus or mildew. Maturity is very similar to Honey and Daisy: several days earlier than Hopewell. Usually high in test weight. Straw strength appears very good. Has exhibited acceptable milling and baking quality, but does not rate high in these categories.




Tatoo--a hard red winter wheat :

Beardless, slightly tall , blue green foliage, long tip awns, has appeared very pure and uniform in nurseries. Has shown little mildew or scab. Heading date a little later than Hopewell.




Sunbeam Extract Co.

http://www.sunbeamextract.com/wheat.htm







Rice varieties.




These new varieties have been found suitable for Pakistan as they are high yielding, cold tolerant, disease resistant, good tillering, easy to milling, good for taste, giving high rice recovery, better straw yield, less damage by hailstone, low shattering loss.




Rice varieties.




Potentials of some high yielding varieties of rice with special reference to Maturity

Original rice
Improved
Paddy
Rice
Maturity

Variety
Version No.
Kg/ha
grade



Lalloo
Bd. 12
7024
Medium fine
Early

Dhour
Bd. 23
6136
Medium fine
Early

Koyalari
Bd. 811
7350
Coarse
Early

Nungi
Bd. 813
7623
Coarse
Early

Cross 116
Bd. 30
4000
Coarse
Medium

Kalam
Bd. 368
5510
Medium fine
Medium

Beni Kath
Bd. 452
4080
Short fine
Medium

Tedhi Banko
Bd. 207
6290
Long fine
Late

Kala Mali
Bd. 108
7600
Coarse
Late

Safri
Bd. 200
5520
Medium
Late

Dubraj
Bd. 153
4958
Medium fine
Late

Tedhi Banko
Bd. 207
6250
Long fine
Late

Kariya Chini
Bd. 366
5550
Medium fine
Late





Neglect of indigenous rice varieties
By Bharat Dogra

http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20001016/agro.htm




Table 1 Comparison of grain yields between new varieties and Checked varities












New variety
CK variety
Difference

Name
Yield (t/ha)
Name
Yield (t/ha)
(%)

Shennong 8801
8.24
Akihikari
7.78
5.9

Shennong 8718
8.23
Toyonishiki
7.84
5.0

Shennong 315
7.25
Tiejing 5
7.05
2.8

Shendao 2
9.28
Liaojing 294
8.66
7.1

Shendao 3
8.94
Liaojing 294
8.58
4.2

Shendao 4
8.74
Tiejing 4
8.06
8.4

Shendao 5
8.81
Liaojing 454
8.44
4.3

Shendao 6
9.28
Liaojing 207, Liaoyan 16
9.00
3.1

Shennong 7
8.97
Jiyujing
8.90
0.8


Table 2 Quality of the new varieties

Variety
name
Brown
rice
rate
(%)
Milled
rice
rate
(%)
Head
rice
rate
(%)
Grain
type
Chalk
grain
(%)
Chalkness
(%)
Transpar-ency
Gelatini-zation
temperature
Gel
consistency
(mm)
Amylose
content
(%)
Protein
content
(%)

First standard
81.0


66.0


10
1.0
1


80
15-18



Second standard
79.0


64.0


20
3.0
2


70
15-19



Third standard
77.0


62.0


30
5.0
3


60
15-20



Shennong 8801
85.6
80.0
70.9
1.7
19
1.5
2
7.0
67
19.2
9.6

Shennong 8718
84.8
77.8
77.3
1.8
12
1.2
1
7.0
62
16.5
9.2

Shennong 315
83.0
75.2
69.4
1.7
13
1.5
1
7.0
81
16.3
9.7

Shendao 2
82.8
74.9
65.4
1.7
5.5
0.75
1
7.0
79
17.6
7.8

Shendao 3
83.1
76.4
71.0
1.8
4
0.3
1
7.0
66
16.8
8.0

Shendao 4
84.7
76.4
67.8
1.7
4
0.3
1
7.0
78
17.1
9.7

Shendao 5
85.8


62.9
1.7
26
3.4




96
17.8



Shendao 6
82.4
74.2
72.8
1.8
25.5
2.5
2
7.0
6.5
17.1
7.7

Shennong 7
83.4


64.1
1.9
17.0
1.6




81









Study on Rice Breeding Process for High-yielding and Good Quality Varieties




Wang Bolun, Wang Shu and Huang Yuancai

http://www.cropscience.org.au/icsc2004/poster/3/4/7/1339_bolunw.htm




Genetically evolved varieties.




Rice: Dong xuan 2,3, VN 10: early spring rice

A3, A4, A5: salt tolerance rice

DH60: very short growing duration and hot tolerance

QC1, 256 and DH 104: high yield varieties.

Viet lai 20: hybrid rice – very short growing duration high yield – good qualify




The new rice variety, Francis, topped LaGrue and Wells, the University of Arkansas' highest-yielding varieties, in performance trials in Arkansas and surrounding states, said Karen Moldenhauer, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture rice breeder.

"Rough rice grain yields of Francis have consistently ranked as one of the highest in the Arkansas Rice Performance Trials, being either equal to or greater than the yields of LaGrue and Wells in all three years of the tests," Moldenhauer said. "It averaged 220 bushels an acre over three years in the Uniform Rice Regional Nursery."

The Uniform Rice Regional Nursery tests rice yields and other characteristics in five states. In the same test, LaGrue averaged 208 bushels and Wells averaged 203 bushels, she said.

Moldenhauer said Francis, designated during breeding as RU9901081, is a very-early-maturing variety with a growing season similar to Cocodrie. It has the same disease package as LaGrue. "Francis, like LaGrue and Wells, is susceptible to common rice blast in greenhouse tests," she said. "As is the case for Wells, however, blast has not been a problem for Francis in field tests."

Francis is rated resistant to brown spot and narrow brown leaf spot, moderately resistant to leaf smut, moderately susceptible to sheath blight, susceptible to stem rot and false smut, and very susceptible for kernel smut.




New Rice Variety Offers Top Yields,Column No. 28.By Fred Miller, Science Editor

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station ,Jan. 31, 2002

http://www.uark.edu/depts/agripub/Publications/Agnews/agnews02-6.html







Table . Popular High yielding Rice Varieties (1998)

Variety Name
Origin
Duration
(days)
% Harvested Area
of 2.5 million ha

IR50404-57
IRRI
95
15

OMCS94
IR59606-119 (IRRI)
95
14

OM1490
OM606/IR44592
90
12

OM1706
OM90-9/OM33-1
95
8

IR64
IRRI
105
10

OM1723
OM554/IR50401
95
10

IR56279
IRRI
95
5

IR66707
IRRI
105
5

OM997
OM554/IR50401
95
8

IR9729-67
IRRI
95
3

IR62032-189
IRRI
105
1

OMFi1
MRC19399 (Philippines)
105
0.9

OM1633
NN6A/IR32843
95
0.7

OM1271
OM89/IR68
95
0.7



Table . Improved High-yielding Rice Varieties (1998)

Variety Name

U14, U17, U20, P1, Xuan 11, CR103 (IR8423), C70, C71,
TK90, X20, NR11, X21, CR01, X33, VN10, DH6, DT10,
DT11, DT13, DT33, D271, CM1





BRIDGING THE RICE YIELD GAP IN VIETNAM - Bui Ba Bong*

Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Omon, Cantho, Vietnam.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6905e/x6905e0e.htm





Maize varieties.

About ZM521:

Intermediate maturity:60-65 days to flowering, 120-130 days to maturity

White semi-flint grain with a modest frequency of semi-dent kernels

High yield even under drought and low soil fertility conditions

Moderate levels of resistance to maize streak virus, gray leaf spot, common rust and northern leaf blight

Tall, with good lodging resistance and good cob tip cover

About Grace:

Early maturity:55-60 days to flowering, 110-120 days to maturity

White flint grain with high flour yield

Well suited for green maize production

High levels of resistance to maize streak virus, moderate resistance to northern leaf blight and common rust

Medium height, with good lodging resistance and cob tip cover




New Maize
http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/Maize/map/developing_world/nmaize/new_maize.htm




Cotton

n May 2005 PAEC provided 40,000.00 Kg basic seed of Bt cotton (insect resistant) varieties “IR-FH-901”, “IR-NIBGE-2”, “IR-CIM-448” and “IR-CIM-443”; which have been grown over 8,000 acres of land in season 2005-06. Its encouraging outcomes have surprised every one from seed companies to the farmers who cultivated these varieties. These early users of Bt cotton have been tightly screened and evaluated by PAEC on the bases of their capacity to follow Bio-safety rules.

First Bt Cotton Grown in Pakistan ,By Ijaz Ahmad Rao – Bahawalpur

http://www.pakissan.com/english/advisory/biotechnology/first.bt.cotton.grown.in.pakistan.shtml




Cotton




A: LibertyLink cotton varieties will be launched in FiberMax cotton genetics, which have a distinct advantage over competitive varieties, primarily due to superior lint. FiberMax seed with LibertyLink technology will be available in five genetic backgrounds: FM 981LL, FM 832LL, FM 966LL, FM 958LL and FM 5035LL. FiberMax genetics are highly regarded for their yield potential and quality characteristics. FiberMax genetics have been known to achieve high premiums for quality. This quality advantage, coupled with top yield performance, gives growers unmatched profit potential in today?s tough marketing environment

FiberMax® Cotton Seed Frequently Asked Questions

http://www.bayercropscienceus.com/products/view:fibermax/faqs.html




Crop varieties developed and released by Division of Genetics, IARI during 1991-2001, have a great potential in Pakistan.




Crops No. of Names of the Varieties/Hybrids

Varieties




Wheat 19 Sonali, Vaishali, HI8381, Kanchan,

HP 1731, Ganga, HW 2004, HP 1761,

HP1744, Vidisha, HS365, HI8498, HW1085,

Shresth, HD4672, HW2044, HD2733,

HI1454, HI1418




Triticale 1 DT46




Rice 9 PNR 381, Pusa 44, PNR 162, Pusa 834,

Pusa 677, PNR 519, RH-10,

Pusa Sugandh-2, Pusa Sugandh-3




Maize 5 PEHM-1, PEHM-2, PEHM-3, Pusa Comp. 3,

Pusa Comp. 4




Pearl millet 6 Pusa 322, Pusa 444, Pusa Bajra 266,

Pusa 605, Pusa 415, Pusa 334




Sorghum 2 Pusa Chari 121, Pusa Chari Hybrid 106




Chickpea 7 Pusa 329, Pusa 372, Pusa 362, Pusa 391,

Pusa 1003, BGD 72, Pusa 1053




Pigeonpea 2 Pusa 855, Pusa 9




Mungbean 3 Pusa 9072, Pusa 9531, Pusa Vishal




Field Pea 4 DMR 7, DDR 13, P1542, DDR 23




Lentil 2 Shikalik, Pusa Vaibhav




Cowpea 3 Rambha, Pusa Safed, Pusa Sampada




Mustard 4 Pusa Bahar, Pusa Agrani, Pusa Gaurav,

Jagannath




Cotton 2 Pusa 8-6, Pusa 31




Name of the Head: Dr. B.B. Singh,Phone No. : Off. 011-25841481, 32009690 Res. 25847216
Email : head_g.rediffmail.com

Introduction/objectives of the Division,Genesis and Growth

http://www.iari.res.in/divisions/genetics/ ,Offers Better Livelihoods for Poor Farmer




Animal husbandry future in Pakistan.







High yielding variety of Sheep.




The Montadale breed is considered a dual purpose breed noted for producing both high-quality carcasses as well excellent wool. As in any breed of sheep, the wool grades will vary from different parts of the country depending on the climatic conditions of the area from where they originate.

Montadales will normally produce wool that grades from 48's to 58's on the spin count or 32 micron up to 25 micron range. A unique characteristic of Montadale wool is its color. Nearly all Montadale wool is extremely white in color. Montadales produce very little lanolin which makes their wool very high-yielding (45-60%). While the high yields do not affect many people with purebred Montadales, it is extremely important to the commercial producer who markets his wool on a clean basis. It is not uncommon for Montadale wool to yield 2-4% higher than wools of the same grade being produced in the same area.

Montadale ewe fleeces will typically weigh from 8 to 12 pounds (3.6-5.4 kg) with a staple length of 3.25 to 4.5 inches (8-11 cm).

Montadale

http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/sheep/montadale/index.htm




Sheep production in is based on fine-wooled breeds, coarse-wooled breeds and Karakul sheep.

All Ukraine sheep breeds possess an excellent constitution, a high fertility (140 - 204 %) and a good performance ability for meat, milk and wool production. The rich Ukraine genetic sheep breed sources compete well with the breeds in other countries. However little is known internationally about the performance abilities of the Ukraine sheep breeds.

Development trends in animal production and livestock breeding in Ukraine - M. I. Baschenko, VP. Burkat

M.I. Baschenko1, V.P. Burkat2

http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/006/AD250E/ad250e0m.htm







Selecting Breeds of Beef Cattle

There are several criteria that must be taken into consideration when making breed selection decisions:

Production system

Market demands

Quantity and quality of feedstuffs available

Climate

Breed complementarity

Cost and availability of purebred seedstock

The majority of the commercial cow herd consists of Angus and Angus-cross females. Traits important for dam breeds in crossbreeding programs include:

early puberty

moderate mature size

high fertility

moderate to high milking ability (appropriate for feed resources)

calving ease

longevity

acceptable growth and carcass characteristics

Traits important in selecting a sire breed for use in crossbreeding programs include:

high growth rate with moderate mature size

acceptable calving ease

adequate carcass quality grades (marbling)

high retail product yield

No single breed is superior for all traits that are important for beef production. Compromises in certain traits are inevitable when selecting breeds to be used in a crossbreeding program. Additionally, there is tremendous variation within a breed for traits of importance. In some cases, this variation within a breed may be larger than the difference between two breeds for a particular trait. Therefore, selection within a breed through the use of Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) is critical for any breeding program.

Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Author: Scott P. Greiner, Extension Animal Scientist; Virginia Tech

Publication Number 400-803, Posted November 2002

http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/beef/400-803/400-803.html







High yield cattles.




farmers to cross-breed their low milk-yielding cattle with high-yielding breeds like Jersey and Holstein-Friesian.

Cross-bred cattle yield about 2100-2700 kg of milk per lactation, as compared to the current level of 300 kgs. The programme has a resultant beneficial impact on the ecosystem as well. Improved cattle feed significantly boosts dung production, thereby producing much more farm manure and biogas. Even small farmers are consequently able to instal biogas plants, reducing their dependence on fuelwood, thereby conserving precious forests.

To significantly enhance the milk yield, ITC is assisting farmers to cross-breed their low milk-yielding cattle with high-yielding breeds.

http://www.itcportal.com/ruraldevp_philosophy/livestock.htm







Characterizing Breeds of Beef Cattle

British Breeds
British breeds are breeds that were developed in the British Isles and were brought to the United States in the late 1700s through the late 1800s. Angus (Black and Red), Hereford (Horned and Polled), and Shorthorn are the primary British breeds. When compared to Continental European breeds, British breeds are generally smaller in mature size, reach mature size at an earlier age, have less growth potential, excel in fertility and calving ease, attain higher quality grades, and yield carcasses with a lower percentage of saleable product.

Continental European Breeds
Continental European breeds are also commonly referred to as "exotic" breeds and include Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Maine Anjou, Salers, and Simmental. The majority of these breeds are relatively new to the U.S., being imported in the late 1960's and early 1970's primarily to improve the growth rate and leanness of existing breeds. In comparison to British breeds, Continental European breeds are generally larger in mature size, later maturing (reach mature size at an older age), produce carcasses with less fat and a higher percentage of saleable product, have lower quality grades, and produce more calving difficulty when mated to cows of the British breeds.




Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Author: Scott P. Greiner, Extension Animal Scientist; Virginia Tech

Publication Number 400-803, Posted November 2002

http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/beef/400-803/400-803.html




The main breeding principle used in Ukraine is based on the importation of exotic sire breeds to be used on local dams. This was the basis for the establishment of the Ukraine Redand - White cattle, as a rule this results of a crossing with Simmental dams and Holstein sires; the same technique was also used to create the Black-and-White cattle from original local Black-and-White and imported Holstein sires. The Holstein gene level in both breeds ranges between 65 and 80 %, the milk potential ranges between 6500 and 8000 kg (3.7 - 3.9 % fat, 3.2 - 3.4 % protein).

The Red dairy breed is bred out of the Red Steppe cattle (Dam line) with Angler cattle, Red - Danes and Holstein cattle. The Brown dairy breed is bred on the bases of a local Lebedan cattle and the Brown Calpack cattle crossed with imported Brown sires. The dairy potential of this breed ranged between 6000 - 7000 kg milk per lactation.

Development trends in animal production and livestock breeding in Ukraine - M. I. Baschenko, VP. Burkat

M.I. Baschenko1, V.P. Burkat2




http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/006/AD250E/ad250e0m.htm










Transgenic fish.




The F.D.A. is considering an application to market transgenic salmon. If the
application is approved, salmon would become the first genetically modified
animal allowed onto American dinner plates, where it would sit alongside
genetically engineered corn and potatoes, which have been available for
several years.

The biotech company producing the salmon says they will be better for the
environment than current farmed salmon.

The new breed of salmon can grow twice as fast as its conventional farmed
counterpart because it has genes inserted from Chinook salmon and ocean pout
that allow the fish to produce growth hormones year-round, instead of only
in warm weather months as normal salmon do.

"It's been demonstrated that there is good potential to improve traits such
as growth rate and disease resistance that would increase aquaculture
production and make it more efficient," he said. "From an environmental
standpoint, since the world fish populations are under duress from
overfishing, overexploitation as well as pollution and habitat destruction,
we are just not going to be able to get fish protein from wild populations.
If we can get more protein efficiency from fish farming, hopefully, that
takes some pressure of the natural populations."




September 18, 2002
New York Times

Chefs Join Campaign Against Altered Fish
By MARIAN BURROS

http://www.organicconsumers.org/patent/cheffish091902.cfm




Transgenic fish.




Harvard medical Dental and public health school researchers have created the first transgenic zebrafish model of human cancer, which should help to identify genes that block or promote the carcinogenic process--and potentially help find new drugs to treat the disease.

The transgenic fish, which develops T cell leukemia, was made by fusing the mouse c-myc oncogene to a zebrafish promoter that is active in lymphocytes. The work is described in a Feb. 7 Science article by senior author A. Thomas Look, HMS professor of pediatrics at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, with first author and HMS graduate student David Langenau and colleagues at Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and other institutions.




Zebrafish Lights Path of Leukemia

May Facilitate Gene and Drug Screens for Effects on Cancer

http://focus.hms.harvard.edu/2003/Feb21_2003/oncology.html







Main research direction to the year 2010:The agriculture Universities and departments need to be work in the following lines.




1. Dept. of Plant genetics and breeding

- Selection of hybrid varieties for special characteristics/traits

- 5 new plant varieties (rice, tomato...)

- 1 procedure

2. Dept. of biotechnology and research methodology

- Breeding for the new varieties with high quality, good resistance (rice, fruit crops, potato and flowers) by cell technology and molecular markers

- Improve the accuracy for experiments in agricultural research

3. Dept. of Plant Physiology

- Applications of plant growth regulators in combination with microelements in agriculture

- Propagation of the plants via in-vitro and in-vivo techniques

- Soilless culture techniques (hydroponics)

- Humic acid for rice

- Potato minituber production

- Production and preservation of strawberry during summer season

- Hydroponics improved technique

4. Dept. of Food Crops

- Intensive cultivation techniques and rotation system

- Cultivation techniques for special food crops

- 3 new varieties (hybrid maize – regional certified variety, sweet maize- testing variety, Sticky maize- testing variety)

5. Dept. of industrial crops and medicinal plants

- Studies on breeding and intensive cultivation techniques of some main industrial crops for high yield, pest and disease resistance (soybean, groundnut, sugarcane, tea)

- 3 new varieties (soybean, groundnut, sugarcane)

- Procedure for groundnut intensive cultivation

6. Dept. of Vegetables-Flowers-Fruit crops

- Study on the intensive cultivation techniques and breeding for:

+ Grapefruit, orange, lemon, longan, litchi, mango, persimmon, pineapple

+ Roses, Chrysanthemums

+ Tomato, cucumber, lettuce, watermelon, heat tolerant cabbage

- 2-3 nutrition leaf spray products

- 3-5 intensive cultivation procedures

- Selection of vegetable, flower, fruit clones/varieties

7. Dept. of Entomology

- Using biological techniques in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

- A collection of natural enemies of vegetable insect-pests

- Investigation guidelines for detecting natural enemies

- Mass production of two significant natural enemies: 1 predatory mite and 1 predatory bug

8. Dept. of Plant Pathology and Agro- pharmacy

-Studies on seed diseases (rice, maize, vegetables, beans, groundnuts...), Soil born diseases (fungus, bacteria, nematode)

- Production of virus- free plants

- Breeding for bacterial blight resistant rice and Bacterial wilt resistant crops

- List of plant seed diseases

- Control procedure for seed diseases, disease free plant propagation and production of antiserum for diagnosis of plant virus (diagnostic kits)

- 3-5 new bio-products

9. Dept. of Sericulture and Bee

- Study on the yield improvement of mulberry, silkworm in summer season in the Red River Delta

- Produce the good parents for hybrid yellow silkworm cocoon in the Red River Delta and Chemicals for silkworm diseases

10- Dept. of Botany

- Selection and propagation of ornamental species (Orchidaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae)

- the resistant characteristics/traits

Botanic garden serving training and landscape


http://www.hau1.edu.vn/en/agronomy/research.htm




The future training programs in plant breeding , genetics and agronomic studies in Pakistan are as under:




- Plant genetics

- Cytogenetics

- Molecular genetics

- Quantitative genetics

- Population genetic

- Biotechnology

- Principle and method of Plant breeding

- Breeding of short term crop

- Breeding of long term crop

- Breeding for resistance

- Heterosis breeding

- Breeding of cereal crop

- Breeding of vegetables

- Breeding of industrial crop

- Seed reproduction and Seed technology

+ Teaching principle for agronomical and pedagogic student

- Plant Genetics

- Principle and method of plant breeding

- Seed reproduction

- Heterosis and hybrid seed production

+ Training courses:

- Hybrid seed production and technology of hybrid rice

- Hybrid seed production of tomato

- Super elite seed reproduction

Intensive rice production

The future research and training programs are as under:

Wheat

Genetic analysis of resistance to major biotic stresses (rusts, leaf blight, Karnal bunt and loose smut)

Pyramiding genes conferring resistance to rusts in elite wheat cultivars

Development of male sterility systems through CMS, GMS and CHA and search for restorers for hybrid wheat breeding

Cytogenetic analysis for localization of genes for agronomically important traits

Development of new plant type with high productivity, multiple disease resistance and other desirable traits

Breeding for improved quality (high protein, bread making and chapatti making)

Rice

Genetic analysis of basmati quality traits

Development of genetic stocks with wide compatibility and other agronomically desirable traits

Pyramiding genes conferring resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) in elite cultivars

Development of high-yielding basmati varieties and hybrids with resistance to BLB

Maize

Analysis of genetic diversity in Indian maize germplasm using molecular markers

Genetic and molecular marker analyses of resistance to major biotic stresses (Downy Mildews, Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight) and abiotic stress (drought)

Utilization of wild relatives for maize improvement

Development of early-maturing single-cross hybrids and composites


Pearl Millet

Development of downy mildew-resistant and early-maturing hybrids

Molecular characterization and diversification of CMS and restorer lines

Diversification and genetic enhancement of male sterile and restorer lines for early maturity, disease resistance and drought tolerance

Forage Sorghum

Development of high yielding varieties and hybrids with high quality, better seed productivity and tolerance to shoot-fly and downy mildew

Chickpea

Distant hybridization for improving chickpea productivity

Development of extra bold-seeded, Fusarium wilt-resistant and drought-tolerant varieties with high yield potential

Pigeonpea

Developing early-maturing pigeonpea varieties with resistance to wilt and pod borer

Mungbean

Development of bold-seeded varieties with resistance to Yellow Mosaic Virus

Fieldpea

Development of extra-early maturing, powdery mildew–resistant varieties with high yield potential

Marker-aided selection for powdery mildew resistance

Lentil

Development of early-maturing varieties with rust resistance and high yield potential

Development of a linkage map based on morphological markers

Cowpea

Development of genetic stocks with dwarf and erect growth habit coupled with Yellow Mosaic Virus resistance

Soybean

Development of short duration, photo- and thermo-insensitive varieties for spring-summer cultivation

Breeding for low beany flavour and resistance to yellow mosaic virus

Mustard

Development of strains for late-sown conditions in the non-traditional areas of the country

Development of yellow-seeded strains with high oil content and high yield possessing tolerance to white rust and resistance to aphids

Development of early maturing B. carinata combining high yield and oil content

Tagging agronomically important quantitative traits in Brassica using isozymes

Cotton

Development of cotton varieties with superior fiber quality, early maturity, suitability for cotton-wheat cropping ystem, and resistance to jassid and black-arm




Conclusion.




In order the meet the 21st Century agriculture requirement, Pakistan need to change their crop varieties, with high yielding , drought and salt resistant with better nutrition value. And having better shelf life .They also need special training and universities of agriculture also needs to be change their syllabus according to new agriculture requirement of the country.

Replacement of field crop with horticulture crop for export .Precession land leveling to save water .Strong horticulture organization. Training people in horticulture science in USA, Australia and South Africa. Building strong post harvest technologies for export. Post harvest transport facilities in land and by Sea Educating farmers in new technologies Involvement of private sector in agriculture, education, extension and research .Immediate replacement of horticulture varieties of food and vegetables. Development of floriculture and horticulture. Processing of surplus horticulture products are those not suitable for export.




TABLE 2
Crop production regions in Pakistan

No.
Region
Cropping pattern
Agricultural
area
(million ha)
Source of
Irrigation
Rainfall mm
(1966-2002)
















Average
Range

1.
Punjab I
Cotton-wheat
5.5
Canal, tubewell
156
55-247

2.
Punjab II
Rice-wheat
2.8
Canal, tubewell
800
600-1 100

3.
Punjab III
Mixed crops
4.1
Canal, tubewell
446
240-688

4.
Punjab IV
Pulses-wheat
1.9
Canal, rainfed
300
200-550

5.
Punjab V
Maize/wheat-oilseeds
1.2
Rainfed
900
700-1 200

6.
Sindh I
Cotton-wheat
1.6
Canal
50
43-70

7.
Sindh II
Rice-wheat
1.1
Canal
58
40-78

8.
Sindh III
Mixed crops
1.3
Canal, dry
123
62-200

9.
NWFP I
Maize-wheat
0.9
Rainfed
1050
240-1700

10.
NWFP II
Mixed crops
0.53
Canal
520
400-670

11.
NWFP III
Pulses-wheat
0.36
Canal, dry
500
300-600

12.
Balochistan I
Mixed crops
0.40
Tubewell, Karez
180
65-3405

13.
Balochistan II
Orchards/vegetables-wheat
0.30
Tubewell, Karez
115
27-290

14.
Balochistan III
Rice-wheat
0.35
Canal
-
-

15.
Balochistan IV
Peri-urban
0.02
Tubewell, Karez
167
167





Source: Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 2002.










Summary of Agricultural Statistics

Item
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Total Cropped Area (Million Hectares)
22.10
21.84
23.04
n.a

Wheat Production (Million Tonnes)
18.23
19.18
19.50
21.61

Cotton Production (Million Bales)
10.61
10.21
10.05
14.27

Rice Production (Million Tonnes)
3.88
4.48
4.85
5.03

Sugarcane Production (Million Tonnes)
48.04
52.06
53.42
47.24

Sugar Production (Million Tonnes)
3.25
3.68
4.02
3.12

Fertilizer Off-take (Million N. Tonnes)
2.93
2.96
3.22
n.a

Agricultural Credit Disbursed (Rupees Billion)
52.31
58.92
73.59
108.73


Land Utilization (Million Hectares)

Area
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04

1.
Geographical Area
79.61
79.61
79.61

2.
Reported Area (3+4)
59.33
59.48
57.06



3.
Not available for cultivation
24.30
24.25
22.74



4.
Agricultural Land (5+6)
35.03
35.23
34.32





5.
Forest Area
3.81
4.04
4.01





6.
Arable Land (7+8)
31.22
31.19
30.31







7.
Cultivable Waste
8.95
8.96
8.28







8.
Total cultivated area (9+10)
22.27
22.23
22.03









9.
Current Fallow
6.60
6.62
6.06









10.
Net Area Sown
15.67
15.61
15.97

11.
Area Sown More than Once
6.43
6.23
7.07

12.
Total Cropped Area (10+11)
22.10
21.84
23.04





Area Under Important Crops (Thousand Hectares)

Top

Crops
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Wheat
8,181
8,058
8,034
8,216
8,358

Rice
2,377
2,114
2,225
2,461
2,520

Bajra
390
417
349
539
343

Jowar
354
358
338
393
308

Maize
944
942
936
947
982

Barely
113
111
108
102
93

Total Food Grains
12,359
12,000
11,990
12,658
12,604

Gram
905
934
963
982
1,094

Sugarcane
961
1,000
1,100
1,074
966

Rapeseed, Mustard & Canola
272
269
281
280
257

Cotton
2,928
3,116
2,794
2,989
3,192

Potatoes
102
105
116
110
112

Onion
106
104
108
109
128

Chillies
85
49
57
56
49

Tobacco
46
49
47
46
51





Production of Important Crops (Thousand Tonnes)

Top

Crops
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Wheat
19,024
18,227
19,183
19,500
21,612

Rice
4,803
3,882
4,478
4,848
5,025

Bajra
199
216
189
274
193

Jowar
219
222
202
238
186

Maize
1,643
1,664
1,737
1,897
2,797

Barely
99
100
100
98
92

Total Food Grains
25,987
24,311
25,889
26,855
29,905

Gram
397
362
675
611
868

Sugarcane
43,606
48,042
52,056
53,419
47,244

Rapeseed, Mustard & Canola
231
221
235
238
215

Cotton













(000 Tonnes)
1,825
1,805
1,737
1,709
2,426



(000 Bales)
10,732
10,613
10,211
10,048
14,265

Potatoes
1,666
1,722
1,946
1,938
2,025

Onion
1,563
1,385
1,428
1,449
1,765

Chillies
175
93
99
96
90

Tobacco
85
95
88
86
100


Yield Per Hectare of Major Crops (Kg/Hectares)

Top

Crops
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05

Wheat
2,325
2,262
12,388
2,373
2,586

Rice
2,021
1,836
2,013
1,970
1,994

Bajra
510
518
542
508
563

Jowar
619
620
598
606
604

Maize
1,740
1,766
1,856
2,003
2,848

Barely
876
901
926
961
989

Gram
439
388
701
622
793

Sugarcane*
45.4
48.0
47.3
49.7
48.9

Rapeseed, Mustard & Canola
849
822
836
850
n.a

Cotton
623
579
622
572
760

Potatoes*
16.3
16.4
16.8
17.6
18.1

Onion*
14.7
13.3
13.2
13.3
13.8

Chillies
2,059
1,898
1,737
1,714
1,837

Tobacco
1,848
1,939
1,872
1,870
1,989





* = Yield in tonnes per hectare. n.a. = Not Available,

Note: i). 1 hectare = 2.4711 acres.
ii). One cotton bale = 375 lbs or 170.09.


Source: i. Federal Bureau of Statistics
ii. Provincial Agriculture Departments




Federal Bureau of Statistics

5-SLIC Building, F-6/4, Blue Area, Islamabad, Pakistan







Extent of saline/sodic soils (000 hectares) are as under




Total in Pakistan.

Slightly saline/sodic soil 598.7

Moderately saline.

Gypsiferous 126.9

Non-Gypsiferous 1102.9

Severly saline, saline sodic soil.

Gypsiferous 1231.8

NonGypsiferous 1153.0

Very Severly saline sodic

Gypsiferous 326.8

NonGypsiferous 1633.4




Total 6173.5 thousand hectares.




Estimated livestock population (000 heads)

Total cattle in 2003-2004 was 23757

Total buffaloes in 2003-2004 was 25513

Total sheep in 2003-2004 was 24744.




Estimated milk production (000 tonnes) in 2003-2004

Animal
I. 2003-2004
11. 2003-2004

Cows
10847
8678

Buffaloes
24050
19240

Sheep
31
31

Goat
675
675



Gross production
Human consumption


Source: Livestock wing.




Estimated meat production (000tonnes/million)in .2004

Animals
2003-2004

Beef



Cattle
505

Buffaloes
582

Total beef
1087

Mutton



Sheep
224

Goat
496

Total mutton
720

Poultry meat
378

Total meat
2185


Source: Livestock wing.




Fish production thousand tonnes in 1995

Inland
136.4

Marine
405.5

Total
541.9





Source: 1) Population Census organization,Islamabad

11) Economic survey 2003-2004 M/O Finance Islamabad.

sincronia

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