Einstein, Space-Time, Buddha, and Poetry
The most profound thing Einstein said
is that time is taffy, malleable.
And so is space.
If I do it correctly
I can leave earth
and see me coming back again
younger than I am today.
Now practically, this means
that the car ahead of me on the highway
is pushing both time and space ahead of itself
and I am in the rear
observing my own future
since I and my car will soon occupy a future
I can see outside my windshield;
one that will occur as soon as I reach the
spot where that car ahead of me is now,
or was, when I was in the rear observing
that car moving through what was clear to me was my future.
More, I was, (am) in the present behind him
pushing space in front of me
creating time as I proceed
and if my speed is at the speed of light
I can compress both time and space
in doing so.
So a car moving much slower behind me
is actually existing in a different relationship
to time and space than I am;
so as to be almost in another dimension.
So lets assume I am moving at the speed of light;
that much slower car behind me
probably could not even see me
or be aware of me because for all
practical purposes I exist in a separate universe
from my much slower moving compatriot.
But the larger point Einstein says is that you and I
and everything exists in time and space simultaneously
living our past, our future, and our present.
That is, all these dimensions exist together.
Look up at the stars and we see what was going on
millions if not billions of years ago because light
takes that long to get here.
But note that other stars also exist in space
in our future, so do we;
so all three dimensions exist simultaneously
in the time-space continuum. Space-time is a fabric and
if we shake one end of the fabric ripples happen all through
Now in the Tibetan Book of the Dead the same point is made
a different way in that when we die and get reincarnated we come back again probably using Einstein's time space continuum.
Well, look here Christians also believe something very similar
in that after we die we simply enter into another time space continuum and our atoms, our soul, or what ever, are merely transformed from matter into another form of energy. Hello Einstein again.
Wonder what want he was reading.
So there is agreement then between religion and science on these things and therefore what is the big disagreement about? Nothing much it turns out.
Now the quantum folks come along and they say 'wait a minute Einstein, nice theory but that is not the way things work down at the atomic level. Time and space are not linear as you imply and you have not recognized the import of your own idea that time and space, past, future and present exist simultaneously.
If that is true , and it is at the sub-atomic level, what we get there, and in the heavens, are small blacks holes in one and big black holes in the other, and to boot all things existing at the same time is not true . Things at the sub-atomic level come in and out of existence on a probability basis.
Therefore, things are not stable at all on either level, and at both levels, things pop in and out of existence; our universe popped into existence from nothing (the big bang) and we can see parts off our universe popping out of existence into black and white holes everyday in space.
Therefore, therefore, on the sub atomic level the cat is made up of atoms which too, pop in and out of existence. It is just that we can't see it very clearly from our vantage point but we use this fact everyday in computers in the way that every electron popping into and out of existence tracks with its counterpart where ever that counterpart is any where in all of the universe. That is how a computer works. Change the charge of electron 'a' and electron 'b' will instantly change its charge and the gate is open and the computer works. It is called electricity and magnetism.
Now out of all this comes String Theory (look this up) which says that atoms have no intrinsic characteristics by themselves. All properties of everything we know in the universe are generated by tiny strings vibrating at different frequencies and with different numbers of them around the nucleus.(This is the periodic table and note most atoms are spontaneously decaying and losing and gaining electrons.
So red is merely matter vibrating at a frequency we perceive as red.
Change the frequency and red becomes blue. Change the vibrations of the atoms in a cat and the cat is dead. Change the vibrations back and the cat is alive; we know this is true because the cat is made up of atoms, true ?
Thus simply stated all existence is potentiality, and probabilities and this comes into and out of existence routinely on a potentiality basis. Now add to these factors one more: "M" theory or Membrane theory. This idea is a progression, from quantum theory and initially states that there are many dimensions, more than three or even four.
After much theoretical wresting these folks decided there are 11 dimensions, because the math worked. But the implications of all this grew very quickly because it also became apparent that how can these 11 dimensions exist in the same time and space? Tricky huh? Well the answer is that they exist side by side often just centimeters apart. We may have whole other dimensions and membranes floating in our same time and space, such membranes containing entire universes floating in the Great Nether.
Contemplate that for a moment. A parallel universe may be centimeters from my face and I cannot perceive it. This theory explains the relative weakness of gravity (I can lift my arm and defy the entire pull of planet earth. Why? Because there is a parallel membrane universe centimeters away and in fact our gravity in this membrane universe is the "residual" gravity from that one explaining its weakness in our membrane universe. Further, if two of these universe membranes collide, this would explain the big bang, the volatility of our universe, things popping in and out, etc. My how theory can bake a beautiful cake. And this is all consistent with Einsteinan views.
Let's take a concrete example of membrane theory . Fish swimming below the surface of the ocean live in one universe but fish-world is separated from our world by a thin membrane called the surface of the ocean. The fish are not aware of the air-breathing world yet both exist in the same time and space. Simple. So I will give you a moment to catch your breath to see if you buy into all of this.
All of this can be very confusing, but I promise you that people believe this enough to put billions in the Hadron collider in Switzerland.
Humm, if all everything does exist simultaneously and we move between these existences, it explains why my Physics professor was so weird. He definitely was not from this planet.
But more profoundly it explains how I can create this very poem from my very own future where it already existed. And more I can access all of my various selves, past, present and future and use the skills I did have, now have, and will have in my future. It may lie in that parallel membrane universe existing right now inches from my face; ideas can hop back and forth between myself and my other poet self in an adjoining universe. So we can have our Einstein cake and eat it too, again.
This, by the way is the way of Buddha who says this exact same thing. Buddha says we can access all of these states of mind through meditation. It is Indian theology as well. There is the world of the unseen and mystical. And in existing we pridefully demand to be able to understand it but that is an impossible dream. We are formed by this universe and are not equipped to sense or really interact with these other worlds. We can only go on faith or test the boundaries which is what the Hadron experiment is doing, literally looking to interact with another parallel universe through particle explosions initiated at the speed of light where these particles disappear, the presumption is that they, like gravity, have gone to that close-by universe.
And in the end no one has an answer to the unknowable question who or what started all this, and more importantly who or what maintains it.
Faith becomes the admission we ain't that smart to know that answer and will never be smart enough to know these answers. Both religious people and scientists now agree on this point.
Well, the more things change, the more it seems like that what we are all saying is the same.
Got to go.
Time for a little meditation.
New update: April 5th 2010
Now if, as I am fond of saying, things literally pop in and out of existence, how then does this exactly work? Now keep in mind this is no random problem. Billions have been spent, and billions more, at Cern in the Haldron Collider to answer this question.
The pioneer in this regard:
Let's take an example of how this works;
We exist in a dimension like the surface of an ocean. The surface of that ocean, as Einstein said is the fabric of space-time. The surface separates the water world from the air world, and both exist in the same time-space but are unaware of each other. Fish don't know we exist and in our example, we don't know know the fish world exists. At the intersection of these two dimensions (there can be many--up to eleven dimensions) the surface has little waves which pop up onto the air world and then fall back down into the water world. The surface forms the boundary between the two dimensions and we are seeing that indeed, water is composed of part oxygen and evaporation occurs at that surface and therefore there are exchanges between the two worlds. Now in membrane theory, (see above) the idea is that this is precisely the case between our universe and another "membrane" universe abutting our own. This explains the weak gravitational force, (gravity here is reduced because gravity is actually coming from an abutting universe, and hence by the time it reaches our universe it is weaker. It explains why I can lift my arm and defy the entire gravitational pull of the earth. Gravity is very weak in our universe for the reason stated above.
So far so good.
Now just as our world has more to it than water and air, our universe model has more to it than just two membranes. (Note that collusions between membranes, in this view, caused the big bang.)
But we have bigger fish to fry here. We want to know the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We now know that in our universe only 25% of the universe is accounted for in what we are able to see. There is no question whatsoever that dark matters exists. We can't see it but we have measured its effects. The same is true for dark energy. It rules the universe of the stars but we want to know its role as well on the sub-atomic level.
Stay with me now. The unseen medium in which dark energy and matter exists we shall call Ether, the unseen. It is all around us yet invisible. The search is on for this ether or particle at Cern where such a particle is called the 'graviton" and/or the Higgs Boson. Why all the fuss?
Well to discover such a particle is to discover how mass comes into being and hence the interplay between mass and energy that Einstein describes. (Notice we have come full circle here)
But even more importantly a discovery of this particle will have implications way beyond physics. Here is my view..
1-A discovery would mean that the world of the unseen and the not directly detectable exists. Humans may simply be unequipped to see or directly experience 75% of the universe. The unseen and the unknowable is therefore most of the world and our universe.
2-No one knows who or what created this huge mechanism.
3-The existence of other universes means the potential for other life forms beyond our comprehension.
4- Popping in and out our universe means that our universe has a basic instability to it. It is mere "potential" as quantum physics discovered. We are constantly interacting with other universes and therefore our universe is constantly changing. It is analogous to the latest gene theory where genes are now seen as merely starting points for the human being but malleable and can be changed by interaction with the environment. They are not immutable, and unchanging. The same must be true , in my view, then, of human nature. This has implications.
5-Finally, such a description of the universe would explain some of the greatest mysteries of all- a. how can all particles in the universe be in touch with every other particle in the universe regardless of time and distance b. how can a particle be in two places at the exact same time. This includes us, individually as well, apparently. c. how can the universe at every level be in touch with itself at every level, the sub-atomic and the galaxy level? This is the "theory of inflation" which is another topic altogether.
These answers takes us back to Mr. E who stated that time-space is a fabric. So if I tug on a piece of fabric on one end, the other end of that piece of fabric moves from my tug on this end of it. Now imagine the fabric in question is our universe floating in space as a thin membrane where a tug at one end of it, no matter how slight, now matter what size, and what is produced is a reaction at the other end of the universe. Time-space is a fabric where all events ripple in the fabric forever. Ether is the medium whereby this is possible.
Once again we can now have our Einstein cake and eat it too.
Now, I take here another theoretical leap. Suppose what we have here is two membrane universes which have not only collided but merged. The larger more dominant universe-membrane is invisible to us yet affects us. This idea would solve a lot of theoretical problems:
1-It is the source of the gravity problem described above.
2-It is the dark matter and dark energy sought by so many
3-A merged universe membrane universe each with its own differing physical laws explains mysteries such as black holes etc.
4-A larger, merged passing-through universe in the some other dimension partially explains the space-time fabric issues. Space-time is a fabric because it is being tugged and pulled by another invisible universe.
5- A last point, how can the universe be constantly expanding and growing, yet remain in touch with itself at all points in space and time at the same time. One answer: This is a characteristic of a living organism. So next time: Is the universe alive" Is it a living organism? One man says so.
That man was Wilhelm Reich. But that is the subject of a separate Blog coming soon. For now I would like to focus on a third aspect of all of this: the transformation of matter into energy and vice versa. This is Einstein's most famous equation: E=MC2.
Now the meaning of this equation could take a book but simply put it states matter can be transformed into energy and vice versa. At first this is a common sense observation; burn a log and transformations occur and the log interacts with its environment and we get smoke, charcoal and the matter in the log goes away or is transformed in heat and light energy.
What is new coming from Einstein is that the transformation of tiny bits of matter at the sub-atomic level releases enormous amounts of energy exponentially. The equation above says the energy released will be the amount of mass you have (say a gram of matter) will release energy equal to that mass times the speed of light squared. Stated another way that gram of mass could blow up an entire city, and has.
This is the atom bomb.
Mass here is being transformed at the sub-atomic level into energy.
This is done by shooting protons into the nucleus of say a uranium atom at the speed of light breaking the bonds of force that hold that atom's nucleus together.
But what do you say has this to do with anything? Well, at question at Cern, and now on the table, is where do atoms get their mass from in the first place? We even seem to have particles which have no mass whatsoever and then they seem to acquire it but how? What imparts mass to massless particles? Moreover, how does this search for the graviton and the Higgs Boson relate to the universe of the extremely large, galaxies, black holes, the big bang, dark energy, and dark matter, and of course membrane theory?
Well, no one knows just yet but that is part of the quest at Cern.
I take here another of my famous theoretical leaps and posit the following: we may regard mass and energy as a continuum just as we have seen that space-time is in fact a continuum. What we gain theoretically is all matter and energy are of a piece, are in fact one thing, not two separate things. An analogy would be that body and spirit are one thing not two separate things. Now we see where this is going. If there is the world of the seen and the world of the unseen, physics and religion then must be regarded as part of a single cosmos--a matter-energy continuum.
Given this whole then arguments about the material world and the spiritual world are pointless since both are part of a larger single entity which we have, at this point, not apprehended.
More significantly we have a single whole with differing parts, which interact with one another and each part is aware of and influences all other parts as a single entity.
So if all that we see and cannot see is a single entity, what is that entity?
All is connected to everything else, simultaneously; everything in the universe and beyond and in our physical selves as well, and in our spiritual selves: all one whole.
Sound familiar? It should. It is the basic premise of most of the religions of the world. What is added is an entity which controls this world or at least created it.
So the unity of all things is no idle speculation. It exists. And has been proved to exist over and over again in the world of physics. One astounding implication is that if we are made of these same electrons are we as individuals are also popping in and out of existence as well, or at least between dimensions, if not parallel universes? Some say so.
So now that we have these shiny baubles of wisdom and speculation what do we do with them? What are their practical uses?
That will be the subject of update number four.
Update number four:
Now mentioned above is the famous Einsteinian equation E=MC2 and we have explored above the mechanics of how energy is created from mass--in this example, nuclear energy and the atomic bomb.
Now we want to read the equation backwards. Mc2=E and the allied question of where does mass come from.
For to contemplate that energy can "congeal" into mass puts us into another realm--energy moving at the speed of light becomes mass. Strange to contemplate, I know, but the idea here is that light energy does have mass and can "congeal" into mass. In fact the primal "plasma energy" that existed seconds after the big bang did in fact congeal into the mass we know as stars and planets--so this is no idle speculation. This did occur. But the question is how--especially if we take Einstein's equation seriously--energy moving at the speed of light can congeal or acquire mass.
Well what moves at the speed of light? Answer: Light itself. Light itself here, has mass--which has to come from some where. Enter the graviton and the oft-mentioned Higgs Boson above, dark energy and matter too.
But our focus is more narrow here: what happens at the speed of light to energy moving at 186 thousand miles a second or even faster? Well apparently the laws of physics and objects themselves undergo change or at least encounter change making environments and energy becomes mass: Einstein backwards.
So why do we care? Well this means that indeed electrons, and other objects can pop into and out of existence, that is to say into and out of mass and energy states, and, if light is an example, we often will not perceive these changes since we are creatures who do not move at the speed of light.
Once again proof of an unseen world, if not universes, exist.
Finally, lets take an extreme example: Can energy pulses moving at the speed of light congeal entire planets, solar systems, universes? Yep.
So now we have energy sources able to materialize, seemingly out of no where in milli--seconds in material form and also disappear as quickly. Scary huh? Yet it is an idea which seems so familiar: Star Trek had a transporter didn't it?
Update Number Five -Gravity and its Consorts.
Now we can no longer ignore the elephant in the room, That is the question of what is gravity? Einstein began his inquires which led to his space-time theory and relativity with an inquiry into the nature of gravity.
Surprizing to note that no one really knows what gravity is. Many refer to it as "spooky action from a distance." What does this mean? Newton "discovered" gravity but gave up on trying to understand it He settled for describing it's actions and interactions. Simply put gravity is the tendency of masses to attract one another. Large bodies attract smaller bodies and indeed may capture them. Gravity caused Newton's apple to fall. Describing the "laws" which govern these interactions was Newton's great contribution. It gave us Calculus as a means of describing the motions of bodies, to predict orbits and to have a space program.
But we, intrepid reader, like Einstein, want to know what it is.
Einstein, as the story goes was sitting in his patent office looking out the window and imagined that a man jumped from an adjacent building. Gravity would determine that he would fall and how fast. Now Einstein added to this some of the greatest discoveries of all time. He postulated that as the man fell he was also altering space-time in doing so. In fact he was not only being pulled down by gravity but that space-time was being altered such that the fabric was bending and creating a gap into which the man fell; much like a spinning penny falls into an inverted cone.
Now add to this another factor: gravity as a factor of mass bodies is altering space-time and can do the same thing to light. A third aspect of gravity Einstein noticed is that as objects fall the impact they make as they reach the ground is exponential. That is, if I drop a ball from 10 feet it hits the ground with 20 pounds of force, the anomoly is if I drop the same ball from 20 feet it does not hit the ground with 40 pounds of force as one might expect. It is a higher factor. Why? What is the action of gravity at work here?
Ok, you have been patient here. What is the overall point you may ask?
If gravity is such a powerful force in our universe-for example black holes have the most powerful gravitational pull of any body in the universe and there is a black hole in the center of every galaxy; if gravity can take a massive sun millions of miles in diameter and crush it to an object the size of an asteroid or even a basketball, what is this force?
Well Cern is trying to answer that question. They posit that there must be a particle called the graviton at work, one which give mass to energy and creates the bodies which then have gravity, except we have not detected it yet. They are in the hunt for it a Cern.
How else to explain the existence of such a powerful force which is otherwise undetectable- and "spooky action at a distance?"
So gravity is all prevasive in our universe, except that it is not the most powerful force in our universe. Given the gravity premise, and that premise is absolutely true , there is a fly in our ointment. Gravity should in fact, at some point, cause all bodies to attract one another and the universe should begin to collaspe onto itself or at least remain in a steady state. But no. It is not. The universe is expanding; not only expanding, but expanding at a exponential rate.
This is shocking.
How is that possible if the universe is held together by gravity? Answer: there is another more powerful force than gravity: Dark energy. Dark energy is pushing the universe apart, and is stronger than gravity and, astoundingly, space itself is expanding as well, dragging the stars, planets and galaxies along with it. Empty space has properties we don't understand. How can space itself expand?
Our universe is a strange place.
So now we are confronted with the issue of dark energy and it's travel-mate dark matter as possible factors in all of this.
And we know very little about either, and starting to feel very small in the very large place we call the universe.
Maybe Cern will give us some answers or Cern itself may disappear into another universe and we'll not know why. LOL
Update number 6
Well we have come a long way with this topic and now we take a leap off the conceptual cliff. Among the string theory people, the membrane people, the quantum people, and Einsteinians is a startling concensus.
Einstein started it with the suggestion that the past, present and the future all exist simultaneously in the same time and space. The quantum people added to the mix the idea that electrons can be in two places at the same time and are in contact at every point in the universe, and membrane people suggest that parallel universes exist centimeters away from my face and there might be millions of them, all occupying the same time and space connected by 11 dimensions-some of these universes may be tiny pin-pricks, likes ours was at the beginning and others large.
We now add the cosmologist group which suggested that laser shots into the universe show that the universe is flat or at least wavy. Repeat flat.
Others claim no, there are bubble universi, and they break off from one another. But, I like the flat and wayy gravy theory.
Laser shots into the deep cosmos by these folks show that a perfect triangulation was achieved.
That meant the universe is flat.
An isoceles triangle does not lie.
Universes folded upon universes, all occupying the same space and time. Or millions of parallel universes-take your choice, but all somehow connected and ours is flat or mostly flat.
Now we, our heads spinning, ask the question what does this have to do with me, literature, religion, and the price of sanity?
Well, undaunted by those questions, the physicists leap right over that cliff and argue:
We are made up of these electrons, poppiing in and out of existence. Does this mean we as individuals are popping in and out of existence and god forbid popping between and among parallel universes? Can there be duplicates of me in these parallel universes, slightly different but all existing at the same time, in the same space? Answer: Yes indeedy.
Then, if ideas in the brain, therefore, participate in this process coming from my past, present and future might I be communicating with these other selves both from the parallel membrane and my own past and fulture self? How does one have aptitude and skills at three to be a great piano player?
Answer: the skill was acquired in a past or future life. Enter as well notions of reincarnation.
Creativity then has a past and a future origin.
Once all of this is contemplated anything can happen.
Let us pause here to catch our breath.
This is a lot to take in and some of us are edging toward the door labeled "crackpot ideas." Could all of this stuff be true , or proven?
Well let me assure you that among these folks, many do believe it and are busy offering proof if you look in the right places and read the right journals.
The facts are that in a logic-dominated culture no one knows what an idea is or where they come from. All we know is which areas of the brain light up when people are doing specific tasks.
That is not much.
Where do these ideas come from? What is an idea in the brain. How does the brain and its ideas relate at the quantum level to this universe? Where do talents come from?
Some talents and aptitudes to be sure come from hard work, but a three year old progeny has not had much time for hard work.
Finally, multiple universes or parallel universes might mean multiple selves for each of us individually, each living in their own universe, living similar or slightly or wholly different lives.
This is a lot to absorb.
Time for ice cream.
But I assure you these ideas are now common in physics circles.
And, there is more.
While these ideas sound strange, they also sound familiar. The idea that there are other worlds of the not-detectable, whole undetected realms, are familiar to many as heaven and hell; as Nirvanna, as visions of underworlds, of Hindu notions of reincarnation, cosmic cycles in the Veda are pegged at 8.6 billion years each. Most religions believe in other worlds where other beings, Gods for example live. Multiple selves for example is expressed in the concept of the soul which we find everywhere from the ancient Egyptian concept of actually having one's soul weighed after death, to the Christian notion of the soul which lives after death and resides in heaven or hell or limbo.
Other realms, unseen, where versions of our earthly presence are duplicated or live in transformed state, indeed, are common. What is uncommon is that modern science is now saying vitually the same thing.
Here again we see the worlds of the religious and the not-religious sounding similar. But are these ideas really all that different? Einstein was religlious, Darwin was religious, Newton was religious.
So where are we?
Differing belief systems when examined closely it seems, end up sounding similar. We discover we are all really brothers and sisters sharing the same family of ideas and that feels sorta nice.
But where do we go to from here? Hold your breath here because the Cern experiment is about trying to throw light on some of the above issues.
The collider has been fired up at 50% level already. (No results for months.)
But when it does fire up 100% in approximately a year we might get answers or we might get more questions, but for sure thngs will never be the same on planet Earth.
Think about this; the greatest experiment in the history of Earth might bring back a result which states that we are not alone, there might be other parallel universes and no, we cannot ever really know all of the whole story because we are from this unverse.
Let's go for the double-scoop.
June 9, 2010
Lurking in the above analysis is one which is so fantastic I hesitate to bring it up. But Einstein was not afraid to bring up his fantastic idea; should I be?
What is striking above with an expanding universe analysis and, the all connectedness of all things view, and the single unity idea is that this is reminicent of the characteristics of a living organism. Berkley said "we only exist in the mind of God" is now scary. Riech died believing in an unfound particle which he called a "bion" --tiny units of life which we have not discovered; a form of life-cell all around us. With an expanding universe can we call that growth in a living entity? Maybe dark matter is not matter at all but a form of life-along the matter-energy continum. Fish again, failing to recognize water. So if we were to entertain such a notion. (I am reminded of the Indian Theological view that all things have a spirit, and may be alive etc. Animists, pagan theologies also come to mind. Is all the world alive?
Let's pretend that this is possible. Is this perhaps the true secret of dark energy and dark matter. If so how can it be proven? How can "bions' be discovered or examined? Is it matter, is it energy, is it the form of life that is this universe? Pretty scary stuff for a people living on a shiny blue ball floating in space, in space-time that is.
Well, my brain has had enough. What about yours? We have had our ice cream, now let's go for the chocolate.
June 17, 2010
We have above looked at various ideas about the nature of the universe, ranging from Einstein to laser theories of a flat universe. Now we are at the point where we want to know what it all means and ultimately what do all of these theories have to say about the nature of reality. Can all of these ideas be combined into the elusive “Theory of Everything:” the holy grail of Physics. Well maybe.
I will begin here with my modest offering. (Did you think I would miss this party?)
Let’s go over the facts first: such a theory would have to take into consideration of the ideas of Einstein, String Theory, Quantum Mechanics, Inflation Theory and even the living universe theory. It also must produce an idea which explains an idea; how the world of the very large (galaxies and stars) relate to the world of the very small (sub-atomic particles) and last, but equally important, this theory must explain “reality” not only for us humans but for all of nature and its creatures. Not much huh?
Well here goes. Obviously I cannot do it in one blog but I’ll start the conversation and you can start the hole-poking at your leisure.
Let’s start the process of explaining the nature of the reality of everything with the re-introduction of the ideas of String Theory, because that is, in fact, the way this story started. Hawking, the world renown physicist (“A Short History of Time” did important work on the nature of black holes. He posited that nothing escapes a black hole and argued that things go into a black hole but nothing comes out, except for radiation which occurs when paired electrons/ photons get separated at the event horizon. Humm, event horizon what is that? Well it is at the point where an object is no longer visible as it goes into a black hole because the gravity of the black hole is so strong light itself can no longer escape, and at that point, Hawking argues, the laws of physics becomes very peculiar and are in fact altered. The implication was that whole stars could simply disappear without a trace in the maw of a black hole.
Now this sparked a huge controversy where other physicists declared this was not possible because it violates the law of physics called “the conservation of information” which is just another version of an old precept that was called the “conservation of matter and energy.” In all transactions in nature things are transformed, matter to energy and vice versa, but nothing is ever lost. It is a law.
Now the fight was on.
Hawking seemed to be saying that this was not true in the special case of black holes.
Holy Smokes Batman, all Hades broke out and the controversy between Hawking and other physicists proceeded.
If Hawking was accurate, the nature of reality itself was at stake and physics itself. The leader of the loyal opposition was Leonard Susskind, string theorist who sought to disapprove the Hawking thesis. Nothing in physics should ever be lost he said
He came up with a solution that proved perhaps to prove too much. See what you think.
He argued that information is not lost as stars disappear into a black hole because elementary particles which are, in string theory, vibrating strings operate in the black hole example to produce a three dimensional event and the star is swallowed but also there is a simultaneous two dimensional event or “hologram” produced which is two-dimensional in nature which is then projected out into space and exists at the edge of our universe in the two dimensional universe. In another version Susskind also posited that at the event horizon time essentially ceases and information exists on the rim of that event horizon and never actually enters the black hole, hence no infomation of lost. This is consistant with relativty theory.
However, in promoting this idea a whole new concept of reality is created. That is to say that as I sit here in my living room there is the three dimensional version (four including space-time) of me but all around me are two dimensional holographic versions of me (we don’t know how many, sort of ghost images of me but just as real as the three dimensional version of me we are used to and, get this, these events in the case of the black hole exit the black hole at speeds exceeding that of light.
Now, this is explained in the black hole example by the notion that black holes distort not only matter and gravity but the nature of reality and space-time itself and; elementary particles vibrating are seen to have multiple two dimensional ghosts stretching to infinity. Since we are three dimensional people, living in three dimensional space and in a three dimensional universe we do not see these ghosts of holograms, but they exist.
Now this does go a ways toward unifying all of the other ideas above from Einstein to Quantum Mechanics to String theory etc., but it does leave more questions in its wake than answers..
Tomorrow I will explain why.
June 18, 2010
Hopefully I have accurately reflected Susskind's views above but, I am taking the tack that what is being said here, aside from the spat between he and Hawking over the black hole, is that we have mulitiples of our selves in other dimensions, whether they be two dimensions or many dimensions. Well we have heard that before and it is not new.
What is interesting to me is an idea that Susskind did surface in another context: that is his idea about the origin of gravity.
His theory goes that strings sometimes close in upon themselves, or close, and these strings vibrate, can and do pop into and out of existence and are paired. But these strings can and often close and essentially bifuricate themselves, (divide) and that "string division" and as pairs seek to re-entangle and match up often miss and create a graviton, hence gravity is born. Gravity is string DNA missing or mis-coding once in a while and the product is gravity from the graviton created.
Well this is interesting, but no cigar.
Here is an alternative view (mine.)
How about the following explanation for gravity:
1- Gravity may be in fact the result of several forces: the first is that seconds after the big bang anti-matter and matter existed. But there was a little bit more matter than anti matter so matter became dominant in our universe. This is current theory.
Now suppose, if you will, this was not really the case. Suppose that anti-gravity did not go away but became transformed into (hold your hat here) dark matter.This is a special form of anti-matter and it becomes dark matter and it is moving speeds exceeding that of light--notice that the theory of inflation is relevant here, and this special form of anti-matter as dark matter still exists. Now add to this dark energy. Dark energy here in this idea is the result of anti-matter being created by contact with matter (the graviton) and there is a resultant explosion of energy (dark energy) also moving at speeds exceeding that of light. Dark energy also is created by the big bang itself and enters our membrance via black holes. (More on this later.)
Now we have to account for the creation of gravity in this scenario. I like the idea that strings in fact play a role in the creation of gravity, that would fit at both the macro level and at the micro level. But we need to add another element--that of electro-magnetism. We need to know its role in all of this.
I have a modest suggestion:
Electro-magnetism is the force which in its fluctuations press down upon matter (gravity-the graviton) causing the creation of a special form of anti-matter and then an explosion of this special kind of anti-matter also creates dark energy which is why the universe of flying apart and expanding. It is a thought.
Therefore, to repeat Einstein's thought experiment of the man jumping of the building. The man is actually being pushed downward by anti-gravity (dark energy) because the motion, space and time of his falling creates an imbalance in electomagnetic fields and in space-time which subsists among all three.
Another example, when a star collaspes, or even a black whole we see enormous explosions of electomagnetic waves. What is is collasping here and why are electromagetic waves a product of this process?
Well, no one really knows, that being the case I will jump in and offer my view.
The special anti-matter and anti-gravitons are all around us and it is this anti-matter and dark energy at work pressing gravitons down into that collasping star and its matter molecules. The result is an explosion linked to electro-magnetism and an explosion which produces dark energy which expands the universe and in doing so creates space.(Note here there are two kinds of dark energy at play.)
Running the movie backward in the case of the black hole is the next interesting idea. But let's save that for later.
Now what is new with these ideas is the one which postulates that what if dark energy and dark matter do in fact move faster than the speed of light, breaking Einstein's speed limit in the universe. (He said nothing can move faster than the speed of light. But what if that is not true ?
We would have a very different assessment of the universe. My candidates for the cosmic speed limit breakers? Dark energy and Dark Matter and Dark Space.
It would illuminate the whole idea of parallel universes, gravity, and anti-matter would here play a somewhat paradoxal role; and the elephant in the Physics study is the following: how can the conservation of information reconcile with the idea of multiple universes and exchanges between same? That is a tough one, even for Susskind. This is a true Goldilocks paradox.
I like this game. Everyone can play. Of course my view lacks certain details but that is for tommorow.
But we may ask do these ideas in fact unite all of the theories above. Well let's have a look tomorrow.
June 19, 2010
Time now to get down to cases.
First, let's imagine that in the big bang, anti-matter, dark energy and dark matter did not in fact disappear but are still with us and cycle through our universe involving black holes.
In addition we have the graviton and the anti-graviton- all swiming in the Great Nether, in the ocean soup just below our visible universe of matter and energy. But where do all these particles live?
Our flat universe is a thin layer floating above this ocean-soup and there are exchanges between the two at the boundaries. Our matter pops out of our universe and anti-matter, dark energy and dark matter, anti-graviton and gravitons from our unverse interact under specific conditions and can move between universes.
So we swim just above the dark energy, dark matter ocean which we don't see because these items along with the anti-graviton move in excess of the speed of light and may be massless or at least a different kind of mass from that which exists in our universe.
Now we want to know the nature of the interactions in this arrangement.
Let's use the black hole as an example. Why should there be massive black holes at the center of many if not most galaxies? They surely must play a role in the above paradigm. Let's imagine that objects passing through the event horizon not only experience space and time distortions but gravity and its gravitons in this case are being pressed down toward the singularity by anti-gravitons and anti-matter from the soup. Space itself in crashing down the black hole moves faster that the speed of light and can come back out of the black hole moving faster than the speed of light.
The distortion over-all is actually a boundary exchange point. Add to this mix the action of dark energy and dark matter as well.
We know that huge anti-matter ( and perhaps anti-graviton) clouds exist and they have been identified in our space, now visible to us. (How did this occur you wonder.)
So what is happening in the special case of a black hole is that boundary exchanges are occuring where anti-gravitons and anti-matter, due to distortions at the event horizon are pressing gravitons and matter down to incrediblity small dimensions. What happens next is the fun part.
Suppose what we are witnessing in all of this is a form of black hole fusion where the product is not only gamma rays but dark energy and dark matter. Gravity is being overcome and dark energy is being produced along with dark matter and anti-matter. (We saw the cloud didn't we?) I suspect that also at play here are the laws of electro-magnetism which are also altered in this process. But I don't have a notion about that yet. But now we want to formularize what the process might look like.
The formula would be a version of Einstein's E=Mc2.
It would be: DE= Dark energy; DM= Dark matter
DE=DM times the exponential of such speed in excess of light speed equal to a velocity of 3.2 million light years per hour (the rate of expansion of the universe exponetially expressed.) (There is another unstated implication here: Space itself must be expanding and is a factor in this formulation. But I have no notation of that aspect.)
What we are doing here is trying to answer the question of how dark energy is produced and tying it to black holes processess.
The alternative would be to say that dark energy and dark matter existed from seconds after the big bang and essentially have not changed since.
I prefer the former notion.
So does the above notion tie together all of the ideas above?
Here is how:
1-It incorporates string theory in the terms of explaining how gravity comes into being
2-It accepts parallel world notions and 11 dimensions
3-It incorporates Einstein's equation and extends it to dark matter and dark energy
4-It accepts the theory of inflation and extends it beyond a steady state notion of the universe and explains how dark energy and matter production can be seen as analogous to nuclear fusion. (The black hole can be seen as the nucleus of an atom being acted upon in a nuclear fusion process with anti-gravity- anti-gravitons as protagonists and dark energy the product-hence explaining the expansion of the universe.
5- It gives black holes a rationale for being and suggests how transactions at the boundaries between the seen and unseen might work.
It is testable in that we look not only for the graviton but the anti-graviton as well, the anti-gravity wave as well as the gravity wave. And it tells us there is much more going on with black hole distortions of space, time and universe boundaries than we thought.
The best point of this theory is its premise is testable: if we do exist as thin layer above a dark energy, dark matter universe then Cern might detect it. What we have done is try to explain the nature of the interactions at the boundary points.
So we have come full circle, all the world is connected, sub-atomically and glaxctically and this too would explain how ants as a mass can commuicate and make intelligent decisions without have a really big brain.
There is obviously commuication possible in the Ether. (I couldn't resist)
So finally what about our "The Universe is Alive" thesis. Not entirely sure about it, but, I would not rule it out. Would you?
I close the blog today with a tribute to the great Albert Einstein:
Where ever I go in the cosmos I encounter Albert Einstein coming back, with a big fat smile on his face.
June 21, 2010 Update
Now we step back and take a longer view and see what kind of cake we have baked. We have focused upon process above and now we want to have a look at context.
The context is:
1- The big bang did not end. It is still going on between two membranes which collided and then have proceeded to merge or pass through one another and exchanges between the two still occur at boundary points involving black holes.
The nature of space itself in this is still largely a mystery and must be seen as an entity which itself perhaps can expand at speeds faster than the speed of light.
2-The big bang involved our universe and a larger one-both passing through and sharing the same time and space. Both "branes" may make up and be part of a larger complex of brains or even "bubble universes."
3- Dark matter and Dark energy may in fact be (along with gravity) function as part of the larger more dominant membrane universe. Matter in the larger membrane is not just "anti-matter" it is the form of matter in that dominant universe and can move and exceed the speed light, and has a very different kind of mass aspect. So different that we must allow that we may never be able to comprehend it's outlines in detail. I have suggested above what the nature of interactions at the boundaries might be between the two universes. But it is a merged universe idea but with seperation between the two. The larger universe is composed of DM and DE and is the source of the expansion in our universe.
4-Therefore Cern may discover particles but indeed we may not be able to comprehend such particles moving at speeds in excess of light. Einstein, by the way did not say nothing can exceed the speed of light in general relativity, that maxium only applied in the case of special relativity.
5- Such assumptions explain further the theory of inflation, the behavior of black holes, the notions of extra dimensions, dark energy, dark matter, universe expansion, particle pairing to some degree, and identifies the sub-atomic process and the glactic processes as similar if black holes are seen as interaction boundaries between two membrane universes of different physics; it explains space-time distortions and evidence of such interactions and the weakness of gravity and it extends the notion of the big bang to include continuing manifestations.
Finally it raises questions around the issue of information loss and places it in the context where loss does not occur but must be seen as information flow between conjoint and mingled membranes. Susskind's solution was similar as the one I have proposed here except he exiled that information to the edge of the cosmos. I have kept it at home and tried to explain its interactions and transformation processes.
At the end of all this we are left with two conclusions, one good and the other discouraging. We may get hints of the whole universe complex, and that is exciting but are not smart enough to really understand all of it because we are from this universe.
So, as we eat our Einstein-cake, we must overcome our deep suspicion that a much better and more delicious cake is somewhere in the room, out of reach and unreachable and unknowable.
Such is life.
Every time I think I am through with this blog I get an email from one of you which makes me realize there is more to deal with.
Here is the next candidate. If the above ideas are valid, we have to alter the Standard Model's idea of the big bang and Inflation Theory to account for the presence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. We can not take a simple anti-matter notion and forget about it thereafter.
We have to take into account how merged and merging membranes account for them and now for black holes and their roles in all of this.
And of course we want to know what are the dynamics of this merging process everyday that is observable to us.
These are weighty matters.
Time for more ice cream.
See you tommorow.
June 23, 2010
With the merging concept there is yet another potential fly in our ointment; that of Dark Flow.
Dark Flow is an observation made in 2008 of an astounding movement of whole clusters of galaxies at about 2 o'clock in the visible universe where whole clusters of galaxies are in a line moving at speeds of three million hours per hour toward a single point! Millions of light years in diameter this "Dark Flow" was totally unexpected and not supposed to be happening according to the big bang theory. (They are revising I understand)
The universe is supposed to be uniform in that mass is evenly distributed and temperature as well since the big bang. This huge movement of whole galaxy clusters is heading toward a spot between the star sytems of Centarus and Vela is a shock if the observations hold up.
What can be causing this?
Well there are basically three possible explanations:
1- A huge mass outside our visible universe is drawing these clusters. This would mean that such a huge mass might be another universe or some super galaxy inside our universe but beyond the visible horizon is drawing upon matter.
String theory and bubble universe, inflation people and multiverse people claim the "other universe" is a logical explanation.
2- This phenomensa might simply be dark energy at work and space itself is expanding and our universe is simply larger than we think.
3- I have suggested a merged universe theory ( see above) where dark energy and merged expanding space itself is creating a singularity.
I have suggested that black holes might be manifestations of merged unverses interacting and now I am suggesting that this dark flow might simply be the two membranes creating the Mother of All Black Holes.
After all, all of these galaxies are moving in a line toward a single center. Would another universe outside our own create such a straight line? A pull would create a more diffuse pattern not a straight line unless there was something like a peep-hole phenomen going on, in which case the singularity thesis is reinforced not disproven.
Ah, but again all three speculations demand some kind of proof; and that is the hard part.
June 23, 2010
In our never-ending blog we come back to an aspect we passed over lightly above. But careful readers will note that we discussed the idea of a holographic theory of the universe which some string theory people embrace. But note there are implications of this for what we have described as the problem of the idea.
And that believe it or not gets us back to literature, religion and the life because one implication is that our brains, just like it does with memory has created individual universes (multitudes of them) as a function of our brains interaction with what we conceive of as the material universe. In other words, we are creatures with brains which have the capacity to interact with our universe to create individual versions of ourselves in multiple universes-holographic versions if you will.
More on this tomorrow in a separate entry-see the companion item on this site call "Everything You Heard About the Universe is Wrong."
Nov 11, 2010
A new discovery denoted in the New York Times announces that two huge bubbles of energy exist at the center of our galaxy. The import of this discover cannot be understated. These bubbles are 50 light years across, covering half of the entire milky way, and, note this fit exactly with the Plasma Theory of the Universe. (See my blog "Everything you Heard About the Universe is Wrong"
Their mere existence radically changes our notions of the universe. See the "Wrong" blog for details.