Click here to buy this book!
your Signed copy today!
Barnes & Noble.com
This manual is a step-by-step guide to establishing a Public Access Defibrillation System in a Business, Church, or any event where people gather. This new technology is saving lives through public use of a defibrillator increasing survival rates to as high as 89%. A must read guide to saving lives through Public Access Defibrillation.
It is the intent of this program to show how EARLY DEFIBRILLATION with an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is the key to success in Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) survival. It is the hope of this program to increase the knowledge of the public and the availability of the treatment necessary to convert the leading causes of SCA, Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) or Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) without a pulse, to a pulse-producing heartbeat. The Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is the definitive treatment in the survival of an SCA victim.
Automated: Automatically assesses a patient’s heart rhythm and determines if an electrical shock is needed. With assistance from the operator, an automated (or semi-automatic) device will deliver a shock to a patient in VF or VT. A fully automatic device will deliver the shock without assistance (not manufactured anymore; some may still be rarely found, and/or used on special situations).
External: All equipment externally used. Pads placed on external chest wall.
Defibrillator: A device that provides an electrical shock through the exterior portion of the chest to treat lethal heart rhythms, resetting the electrical charges inside the heart.
Medical use of electrical defibrillation began in the 1950’s – the early stages of development grew slowly due to skepticism in the medical field. By the mid 1960’s there was enough data to support the theory that defibrillation was necessary in cardiac arrest patients.
In the mid-1970s a new theory was being developed bringing defibrillation closer to the patient. It had been tested with great success in Europe. The suggested process in the U.S. was to train an individual at the technician level to recognize cardiac arrest, assess the situation in a calm manner, manage the airway with extended skills, monitor/defibrillate heart rhythms, follow Advanced Life Support (ALS) Protocols, and transport. This individual was known as a Paramedic.
During the 70’s and 80’s, paramedics began providing medical response in the field to people with need. Although this has greatly improved patient care and survival, there are situations and conditions in which the paramedical response is, often, just not fast enough.
By the time someone recognizes a Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) victim, the clock has been running for approximately a minute to a minute and a half. Calling for help by notifying “911” takes approximately one minute. Two and a half minutes have now elapsed. Waiting for an EMS unit will be another 4-6 minutes (most EMS systems have longer response times). Now you have approximately 7-9 minutes into the victim’s cardiac arrest and significant brain damage has occurred. For each minute elapsed, the chance of survival from the time of the arrest drops by 10%. Therefore, after 9 minutes, the victim is approaching a 90% chance of death. If you knew CPR, knew how to operate an AED, had an AED available, and applied definitive treatment (shock) immediately, the chance of survival for this patient could approach 89% .
In the mid-1980’s, AEDs were developed for out-of-hospital use, after advances in solid-state circuitry and microcomputers allowed defibrillators to recognize VF or VT. The AED was the first machine to identify VF or VT. In addition, it has been proven in clinical studies that early defibrillation increased the survival rates greatly in one giant leap. Defibrillators were then deployed to Basic Life Support Units manned by Emergency Medical Technicians with limited advanced training. Even with this breakthrough, the location of an SCA could never be determined. Again, the service was excellent but still not quick enough to catch the SCA in time.
Listed below is statistical data showing the survival rates when certain procedures and skills were provided:
No CPR and delay of defibrillation for 10 minutes has a 0 – 2% survival rate.
Early CPR and delayed defibrillation for 10 minutes increases the survival rate to 2 – 8%, maximum 6% increase in survival of SCA.
Early CPR and Early Defibrillation within 6 minutes increased the survival rate to 20%. Some locations in the United States have reported survival rates of up to 70% due to early defibrillation. An increased survival rate of 12 to 62% , dramatic increase!
Early access to Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) through early notification increases the survival rate to 30% -- an additional 10%!
Chain of Emergency Cardiac Care (Chain of Survival 4)
The emergency cardiac care concept, supported by the American Heart Association® for years, is displayed as the Chain of Emergency Cardiac Care (four links in a chain).
First link is Early Access.
Second link is Early CPR.
Third link is Early Defibrillation. (Weakest part of this chain until now!)
Fourth link is Early Advanced Care.
In the first four minutes of SCA, the victim’s heart is in a state of electrical confusion, heart muscle quivering, needing a charge of electricity to convert it back to a normal heartbeat. Each minute defibrillation is delayed it reduces the chances of conversion by 10%. Four minutes or less is the prime time for converting VF into a normal heartbeat. After four minutes clinical death begins causing permanent brain damage, six minutes biological death begins and after 10 minutes survival is dismal. However, even under optimal conditions some victims may not survive. Statistics are indicating that if the AED is used within four minutes it will save a life.