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Anita L Wills

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Black Minqua The Life and Times of Henry Green
by Anita L Wills   

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Books by Anita L Wills
· Pieces of the Quilt: The Mosaic of An African American Family
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Publisher:  Lulu Press Type: 


Copyright:  February 2012 ISBN-13:  9781105524943

Minqua People of the Welsh Mountains

Black Minqua is about a descendant of Indian/Negroes, Henry Green, his fore-bearers, and community. He was a participant in the Christiana Resistance, an event that changed his life. It was a rebellion seen by some as Treason and others as Justice, which took place on September 11, 1851. The Christiana Resistance, an event in which a White Slave Owner was killed took place in Christiana Pennsylvania. After the Fugitive Slave Act, Slave-owners and Federal Marshal's joined forces to capture slaves, even in the North. On the last day of his life, Slave Owner, Edward Gorsuch knocked on the wrong door, and the ensuing encounter pushed Henry Green and his community into the History books.

     Henry Green and his for-bearers were remnants of Native/Negroes living in area known as the Welsh Mountains in Southeastern Pennsylvania.  Europeans on first Contact conferred the name, Black Minqua on Natives.  In the 1700’s Tom and Joseph Green were clearing lands under a warrant issued by the State.  The story of the Green men is an American story, one in which a community struggles to live surrounded by repression.

     On September 11, 1851, Henry stepped in to History and his life was changed forever. He and other Free Blacks in the community answered a call for assistance, and by the time it was over a white slave owner was dead. Although it took place in Pennsylvania, the slaveowner was within his legal rights to demand his, "Property." 

      In 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed giving Southern Slave Owners Legal Power to confiscate slaves whereever they were.  Frederick Douglass called the Christiana Resistance, a Precourser to the Civil War.  The event made a hero out of Henry and his neighbors to some and a vilian to others. Henry came out of the Welsh Mountains to assist a friend..., not knowing the consequenes facing them.

    The inhabitants of the Welsh Mountains were remnants of the Minqua, mixed raced Indian/negro, and their descendants.  Once disenfranchised whites move into the mountains, the intermixing continued creating a people of brown and white hues.  

     It is necessary to have a historical backdrop in which to tell Henry’s story, and his actions on September 11, 1851.  For the story can only be understood through history, before and after the event.   Follow the story of the Green men from Tom through Grandson Henry and you will understand why this is a story that needed to be told.  This is our story to tell, from our minds, hearts, and spirits.


In the farming community of Lancaster County, the day starts before dawn. Henry was a farm laborer and was already at work when he heard the horn blow; it was the call to arms. He headed down the hill past the Pownell farm and into history. A sea of color joined him as they raced towards William Parkers' House . He saw the house, surrounded by white men with guns, and his heart raced. The only weapon he had was a hoe but it would have to do. He belonged to a group of Free Blacks who swore to put their lives on the line in the fight against slavery. The Fugitive Slave Act meant that slaves could be apprehended whether in the North or South. That was not going to happen today, in Lancaster County, if Henry had anything to say about it!

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