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Architecture:the making of metaphors
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Publisher:  Cambridge Scholars Publishing ISBN-10:  144383517X Type: 


Copyright:  Feb 3 2012 ISBN-13:  9781443835176

Architecture: The Making of Metaphors
Author: Barie Fez-Barringten
Date Of Publication: Feb 2012
Isbn13: 978-1-4438-3517-6
Isbn: 1-4438-3517-X
The authors writings are based on his lecture series presented in 1968 at Yale University called “Architecture: The Making of Metaphors” which was then published in part in Main Currents in Modern Thought, then in many other journals including research into the works of Paul Weiss, Andrew Ortony, David Zarefsky and W. J. J. Gordon.
Barie Fez-Barringten is an Associate Professor at Global University in the United States. Currently, Barie is writing articles and speaking on architecture, urbanism and Saudi Arabia, and has recently published two books: Gibe and Legend. Barie is often invited to present his inspiring life story to students in public schools, colleges and universities.

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Architecture:the making of metaphors
Architecture:the making of metaphors

Organization of the chapters:

(see the TOC above) “Architecture: The Making of Metaphors”

key to the built environment

introductory chapter provides metaphysical definitions and linguistic examples of metaphor.

Metaphor is shown to be a tool used by designers, architects, and users as well as the medium between metaphor’s creators and readers. Explained is both the dual tracks of the built metaphor as both technical, conceptual, practical and artistic.

Both the private and the public face the contrast between specific and plausible metaphoric pre-conditions. The role of design in the aesthetic of metaphors is viewed in light of art, common sense and practicality. Described also is metaphors usefulness in social, business, professional planning and shaping society.

While I have drawn on my earlier research all of the material in “Architecture: The Making of Metaphors” is new and fresh. As much as the written word permits I tried to emulate what I would say if invited to conduct a seminar. The underling assumptions chapter presents the role of design and the key assumptions we make when we make metaphors including the differences of perceptions, macro and micro and conspicuous and obscure metaphors.

Described is the combined use of metaphor as a rational tool for design and how design professionals and metaphors are surrogates for end-users. Interestingly pointed out is the ways the design team has commonality not only in metaphor but in their working relationship which bear upon their ability to metaphor.

Lastly, and profoundly that the things we call metaphors are merely the surface manifestation of conceptual (program, design and contact documents) metaphor.

Metaphoric complementarities chapter contrasts metaphors and sub-metaphors, process and product metaphors, implicit and obscure to conspicuous and overt metaphors as well as the metaphor of myth and fantasy. In this the role of art-verses-intellect is explored and six principles at work the way that the pairs inform one another, prioritize, sequence, interact and beget one another, triangulate and form a new cognition, and finally co-mingle and stratify.

History of Metaphor chapter highlights the way metaphors have been used from Ancient, prehistoric and ancient Egypt through renaissance , Maria Theresa, Marie Antoinette to Futurist and Postmodern period of architecture. I highlight the architectural metaphoric vocabulary as defined by the social and political metaphor of each.

Stasis –The heart of the Metaphor chapter defines the focal point of a metaphor, the point at which contending factors meet where it is the commonplace in a combination and complex weave of dominant, sub-dominant and tertiary metaphors. In addition we discuss when users and creators fail to agree upon the stasis as well consequences between representative knowledge and comparisons. It concludes with the making a habitable conceptual metaphor, after assimilating the program, the very first step in the design process is to develop a “parte’ top-down sky hook approach to making metaphors.

Metaphoric Bundling: Metaphor from parts to whole chapter explains how metaphors familiarizes strange things with things that are familiar as well as some of the common errors in this pattern of inference as the reader perceives the inferences with its warrants and connects the evidence of the seen to the claims to make the resolution of the whole which are surmised from the surface where bundling is that the separated elements are potentially compatible and when combined can work together to produce a working metaphor. The whole of the metaphor is designed in such a way as to clarify, orient and provide “concrete” reification of all the design parameters into a “highly structured’ work. Metaphor with comparisons chapter describe the types of analogies and tests for metaphoring with comparisons including abbreviated similes to appreciate similarities and analogies contrasting metaphors that warrant “things that are basically different will be unrelated explaining the commonalities which are processed as analogy that align and focus on rational commonalities independently of the objects in which those relationships are embedded such as a figurative metaphor used to make the strange familiar and talk about one thing in terms of another, while expressing an essence common to both.

Metaphor as an Inference from sign chapter describes the workings of sign inferences that establish that there is a relationship between two factors, so that one can be predicted from knowledge of the other including novel images and image metaphors. This chapter also discusses two types of mappings (conceptual mappings and image mappings) as the matrix of conditions, operation , ideal and goals of the thesis to find similarities and differences. It concludes that below the level of consciousness and our metaphor system is central to our understanding of experience and the way we act on that understanding where sign architectural metaphors infer the unknown from the known where constructs are unknowable abstractions such as intelligence, economic health and happiness are presumed.

Cause and effect chapter shows how literary metaphors cause mental connections while architectural metaphor causes the manifestation of a material shelter. Whether large or small, loud or soft, simple or complex; intended or unintended metaphor has an affect. Designers count on the behavioral sciences to induce specific affects with such devices as compressed spaces, color to shrink or heighten sizes, scale of furniture, length of hemlines, textures, lighting volumes, etc. Yet, while the intention and the cause are designed there may be unintended consequences, but effects nevertheless: the work is a metaphor. Aesthetics as

Commonplace of Metaphor chapter considers inferences that are based on social knowledge (commonplaces) of aesthetics. A knowledge usually derived from direct and personal contact in a limited context as a school, campus, work place, neighborhood, platoon, and squad. The chapter explores aesthetics of scale and buildings as the very difference between a building which is a work of architecture, art or metaphor and one that is not and how contemporary aesthetics’ focus on perception by means of the senses that cognitive capacity in creation and perception informs conceptual metaphors and the two affect any one aesthetic experience, subject and individual. The chapter also discusses aesthetic decorum, memory and historical point of views. What makes a good Metaphor (validity and fallacies) chapter will examine errors specific to each particular pattern of inference, and deficiencies in clarity, which results from the use of unclear language. It then will consider general errors of vacuity (“empty” metaphors). We will consider how each of these misuses of metaphoring can cause a design process to go astray in the summary descriptions of fifteen different common and un-common forms (patterns) of metaphor. Concluding that a metaphor that is invalid is fallacious where fallacy is a deficiency in the form of a metaphor.

Metaphor between surrogates chapter examines the practice of metaphoring in society. The organizing principle is the concept of spheres of metaphor, distinctive sets of expectations that provide contexts for making metaphors. After introducing the ideas of spheres and distinctions among the personal, technical and public spheres, this chapter will concern the personal sphere. Chapter also discusses nonliteral use of language of habitable metaphor including signs and symbols of shapes and forms.

Framing the art vs. architecture argument chapter present arguments supporting the resolutions surrounding the way architects and urban designers make metaphors. This is done by presenting the thinking on making both natural and synthetic cities as well the design of buildings and neighborhoods. Cited throughout are linguistic, cognitive, psychological and philosophical mechanisms of the metaphor and their applicability. The parties to the argument are indicated as well as their context and vested interest. Case of buildings the argument of the art of the building may involve its price, quality, origins, uses, location and history of ownership. In any case the opponents would not delve to find the metaphors, concepts, ideas but appraise the value based on the market and comparables for similar buildings. Evidence of crisis is a busy public is apathetic about their environment because it is irrelevant. People are lonely in big cities because their buildings have no individuality, identity and are impersonal. The business community is faced with the dilemma of both wanting the highest quality , imaginative and beauty that results for art while holding in disdain the persons and process which brings about the desired results.

The Six Ways in Architecture works as a metaphor with warrants to the inference chapter explains what happens when the evidence is presented to support the claim but may not justify the claim and therefore warrants are provided for the inference from the claim. Where the warrant that a metaphor talks about on thing in terms of another supports the claim that the evidence of whole cities, estates, buildings, rooms, building systems, materials, forms, and styles supports architecture as the making of metaphors. Since architecture is the making of metaphors follows from the formal deductive claim that since art is the making of metaphors and architecture is an art therefore it too makes metaphors. The 10 warrants to the inference are described including metaphors allow us to express two truths at the same time about two times, the past and future; Metaphors make the strange familiar and talk about one thing in terms of another expressing a truth common to both and Architecture blends certain programmatic specifics with concerns implicit to its own medium; etc. Also are presented Six Ways in Which Architecture Works as a Metaphor is evidence to prove how architecture is a metaphor as between the parts of itself, etc.

Design Construction Making a Metaphor chapter explores the complex structure of a “program” (itself a metaphor) of metaphoric architecture as the program of design is used to compose a metaphor; the design and the program have a metaphoric relationship. Topoi (“stock issues”) offer a shortcut to location issues is a given project. Topoi (literally “places”) are issues always raised when addressing programs of a given type. The works of architects are not themselves the metaphors but the shadow of the metaphor which exists elsewhere in the minds of both the creator and the user, and, it is there that the creator and the user may have a commonality (not commonplace).

Reification chapter includes metaphor’s cause and effect; metaphor analysis and diagramming and complex structures: the vocabulary of program and proformas project metaphor provides illustrations of the process of making metaphors,

Citations listed alphabetically:

Gordon, William J.J.[9]

Fraser, Bruce [18]

Kriesberg, Irving [1]

Lakoff, George; [11]

Nigro, Georgia; [17]

Ortony, Andrew; [8]

Reddy. Michael J.; [12]

Searle, John R.; [14]

Sternberg, Robert J.; [17]

Tourangeau, Roger; [17]

Weiss, Paul; [3]

Miller, George A. [19]

Zarefsky, David [10]

                    In the preceding preface and introduction I presented the context of metaphors, relevance, acknowledgements, scope, background, methodology, and organization of the chapters: all with the goal to assure readers that this monograph would be worth their investment and what benefits can be expected. As I said it is my hope that not only will readers be able to make better metaphors but appreciate them as well; thus enriching one of life’s great opportunities: the enjoyment of the built environment. In this first chapter I introduce imagination and provide elaborate definition of the metaphor and its overall affects. I introduce the different kinds of metaphors and persons involved in the creation ,perception and use of metaphors. Scope: Metaphors and imagination are keys to understanding the built environment and go hand in hand in our ordinary life where, with very little information, we instinctively find a commonplace. In this way the most obscure, trivial or overwhelming is brought to light whether it be natural, man-made, social, etc. In this way imagination is the backbone of metaphors. Metaphors are everywhere as in song, conversation, media, school, work, etc.

                        It is in such things as a building’s silhouette, volume, height, door knob, window and floor. It is by metaphors that the mysteries of who we are in the universe as well as what lurks in books, people, society, politics and government. From the little we can see we make the unknown familiar. Our built environment is no exception as we discern its persona, identity and impact on our daily lives. So the metaphor is a very useful tool. Metaphor is an eye-opener and mental guide to understanding and use of the built environment. So where did it come from and does it have other uses? [3] Everyday usage of “metaphor” is borrowed from linguistics and applied to other contexts; however, I have come to discover that “metaphor” is more as a disciplined system of thinking. Some would even say metaphor is synonymous with thinking. How is this way of thinking get applied to building construction? While architects are the master builders (being the arbiter between the owner and contractor) the building’s end-product is a result of a metaphoric thought process, called design, which creates the metaphor.

                    Design is part of the professional process by which architects compose the metaphor. So, how does the literary metaphor work? [3] ’Metaphor is a literary term which means ‘carrying over’; it associates meanings and emotions which otherwise would not have been related. Words (essences) known to have a preferential or primary use in one context are explicitly employed in another” . From linguistics we derive the form of the metaphor which talks about one thing in terms of the other; makes the strange familiar; contains two peripheral elements which are both unlike and from different contexts, are apparently unrelated; and has a commonality which is not apparent. Historically, [16] metaphor is present in the oldest written Sumerian language narrative: the Epic of Gilgamesh; and the idea of metaphor can be traced back to Aristotle. Modern European languages have a large number of metaphors which represent the whole of nature. Many of these, such as “Mother Nature”, the “celestial harmony”, the “great chain of being”, and the “book of nature” are used in natural science and in literature.

                  Most of these words can be traced back into prehistory where they arose as mythological from the same small set of images; even the hieroglyphics on caves are entirely metaphoric as language itself is essentially metaphoric expressing one thing in terms of another in order to find an essence common to both. [3] When we use linguistic metaphor metaphorically we can say that a linguistic metaphor is the same as an architectural metaphor. This explains how we can understand the reasons metaphor is a key to the built environment especially when [11] “metaphor allows us to understand a relatively abstract or inherently unstructured subject matter in terms of a more concrete or at least more highly structured subject matter”. With metaphors, owner- occupied specialized works of architectural metaphors may begin to be composed after long periods of research, observations, and analysis. With the metaphoric structure the project management team (PMT) and/or designer arrive at conclusions, executes redesign and re-thinking of existing; or, metaphorically understands the utility of new systems, feasibility, pricing and meeting budgets; as well as interviewing, polling, programming, diagramming and design of sub-systems.

                    Because metaphor is the generalized when complete the metaphor is accessible, usable and compatible. “ Such terms as ‘screaming headlines’, brut architecture”, ‘foxy grandpa’, and ‘Richard the Lion-Hearted’ take terms normally used in one context and bring them over into another with the object of illuminating-making more evident-something in the second domain which other wise remains obscure’. What are the building –types with metaphoric identities? Architecturally metaphor is the as city hospitals, public libraries, public schools, dwellings, retail shopping as well as their building details and processes. Do metaphors have other benefits? [3] Metaphor is not a one-way process, but allows us to express two truths at the same time. In ‘Richard the Lion-Hearted,’ the kingly quality of Richard affects the meaning of lion and the strength of the lion affects the meaning of Richard. Lion-hearted tells us what Richard would be were he an animal, equally it tells us what the lion would be like were it human. Both meanings converge in the idea of a being that not only rules but deserves to rule, which is not only brave, but brave in a particular way-brave as a leader, brave as one who serves to be leader, the metaphor, in other words, points beyond each of its members to the reality they diversely express, articulating a power common to both, telling us that they both have an intrinsic nature”.

                      The whole of the architectural metaphor is structured in such a way as to clarify, orient and provide “concrete” reification (verdinglichung) of all the design parameters into a “highly structured’ work; a work which homogenizes all these diverse and disjointed systems and operations into a well working machine. Very often the metaphor is not necessarily homogeneous but it is perceived as coherent, coordinated and complete; the aesthetics of which is the commonplace of the metaphor and subject of a later chapter. . [3] “Architecture (design) is a common but imperiled activity. It is sometime thought that, because everyone does it, design does not require careful study. Design indeed is pervasive in daily life. It occurs everywhere from informal encounters between owners and contractors to the formally structured design agreement between owner and design professional. Design is almost instinctive as we try to take control and rectify a situation. The very act of noticing a need is the fist strep and looking for remedies follows”.

                          Design is one way in which we attempt to shelter; it is possible, though, to design for oneself. [10] Design is not made in a vacuum and effective design is concerned with its audience as [11] though much of our conceptual system is metaphorical, a significant part of it is non-metaphorical. Metaphorical understanding is grounded in non-metaphorical understanding. The science of the strength of materials, mathematics, structures, indeterminate beams, truss design, mechanical systems, electricity, lighting, etc. are each understood metaphorically and their precepts applied metaphorically. But often random selections, trials and feasibility are random and rather in search of the metaphor without knowing it is or is not fit to be part of the metaphor at hand. Is this the right context for a steel or reinforced concrete structure? What roofing , which siding ,etc. On the other hand we may select another based on non-metaphorical, empirical test and descriptions of properties. We then try to understand the metaphor in the selection: its commonality; how it contributes to the new application; how its inherent properties contribute to metaphor.. How does metaphor compare to art? [3] “On the other hand architecture “assaults us everyday; it is the intrusive art from which there is no escape. It is always with us, either enclosing us, pressing us down within its four walls, or outside looming at us on every hand. We can close a book of poems, turn off a symphony, refuse to go to play or watch a dance, and shut our eyes to a painting or piece of sculpture. But architecture cannot be avoided”.

                           Architecture as the making of Metaphors is the [10] study of effective (see chapter nine) design. Popular conceptions of use of metaphor in linguistics need to be set aside. It is not only the picturesque (“bildlicher ausdruck”), allegorical, or translation (“ubertragen”) but an operating cognitive, psychological, sociological and political mechanism. Metaphor is transferring, bridging and carrying-over where transfer can bridge anything to anything and has consequences. In this way metaphor is the key to the design and enjoyment of the built environment. One of the conditions to enjoyment ultimately depends on the assent of users, audience, inhabitants, etc. Assent is based on users’ acceptance of the design and assent often involves making the work one’s own. [12] Peculiarization, personalization and authentication are required for a metaphor to live.

                         This too is the way the user metaphorizes the using process: the user and the work empathize. In this is the art of making metaphors for the architect of public works. His metaphor must “read” the cultural, social and rightness of the metaphor’s proposed context. Whereas a dead metaphor is one which really does not contain any fresh metaphor insofar as it does not really “get thoughts across”; “language seems rather to help one person to construct out of his own stock of mental stuff something like a replica, or copy, of someone’s else’s thoughts”. I say: “dead-in, dead-out” and “you are what you eat” ; designs without concerns for scale, hierarchies, scenarios, surprise, delight, vistas, etc will be “dead”, they are without an aesthetic. In fact, they are “techne”-driven engineered buildings without metaphoric (aesthetic) concerns. Such a work is a techne driven design where craft-like knowledge is called a ‘techne.' It is most useful when the knowledge is practically applied, rather than theoretically or aesthetically applied. It is the rational method involved in producing an object or accomplishing a building design. Techne is actually a system of practical knowledge. As a craft or art technê is the practice of design which is informed by knowledge of forms and methodologies such as the craft of managing a firm of architects where even virtue is a kind of technê of management and design practice, one that is based on an understanding of the profession, business and market. Sub-metaphors which alone are strange and unrelated, yet when coupled with the whole become part of the created metaphor connecting the given to a proposed or a building system to a dimensional module brings an architectural amorphic scheme out of a diagram idea into a structured reality. This introductory chapter provides metaphysical destinations and linguistic examples of metaphor. Metaphor is shown to be a tool used by designers, architects, and users as well as the medium between metaphor’s creators and readers. About the built metaphor explained is both the dual tracks of both the technical and conceptual and practical and artistic.

                        Technai are such activities as drafting, specifying, managing, negotiating, programming, planning, supervising, and inspection; by association with these technai, we can include house-building, mathematics, plumbing, making money, writing, and painting. So much so that the study and practice of design is devoid from the humanities and downplays theories of architecture developing rather the crafts, skill and understandings needed to engineer, plan, sketch, draw, delineate, specify, write, and design. It is confirmed in common-sense experience with most buildings in most cultures that what it is we refer to as beauty is well made and what is well made is often things of beauty. Even the lowest budget and least expensive can be exquisite when designed beautifully. In either case the user reads the metaphor. [3]

                         There is a public and private face to design and metaphor. There is the overt, obvious and then there is the obscure and implicit, most metaphors of private, personal and intimate where we imagine and “picture” something from what is apparent. We translate (“ubertragen”{“transfer” is Latin for metaphor} ) the real into a future not yet manifest. The more the internet bombards us with images and solutions the less we have the time to “picture”. Design may be a lost art. 1.4.2 [11] Plausible accounts rather than scientific results is why we have conventional metaphors and why conceptual systems contain one set of metaphorical mappings than another. An architectural work establishes its own vocabulary which once comprehended become the way in which we experience the work, finding its discrepancies and fits and seeking the first and all the other similar elements. We do judge the work as to have consistency, integrity and aesthetics. Buildings which do not have these characteristics do not work as metaphors. It is similar to the experience of reading a proposed manuscript with blatant tying, spelling and grammatical errors; the content is there but difficult to decipher.

                 Design documents which is poorly drafted where the lines do not intersect, cross and are weak, where lettering is not aligned and where titles and descriptions are inadequate and vague. The relevance of studying “architecture as the making of metaphors” is to provide practitioners, owners, and mainly those that shape the built environment that they have a somber and serious responsibility to fill our world with meaning and significance. As in city planning where the [11] geometry of urban blocks and the location of building masses that reflect one another is a scheme to sharply define the volume and mass of the block and experience of city streets (Vincent Scully). In New York City the grid and this insistence on buildings reflecting the geometry of the grid is a metaphor of city-wide proportions The streets are defined by the 90 degree corners, planes and tightness of the cubes and rectangles to the city plan. In this way the metaphor of the overall and each building design no mater where it’s location on the block; no matter when or in what sequence the metaphoric constraint of appropriateness or zoning formulas, all lead the ideas to flow from one to another architect.

                     An aspect of the key to access to the built environment the reader’s ability to “appreciate” (to value is to attach importance to a thing because of its worth) the street, its geometry, limits and linearity. These are ideas in the [12] conduit from the architect, through the metaphor and to the reader where a conduit is a minor framework which overlooks words as containers and allows ideas and feelings to flow, unfettered and completely disembodied, into a kind of ambient space between human heads. Irregardless of the details, the overall concept is “transferred “from one to the other, irrespective of sub-dominant and tertiary design elements, they flow without regard to their content, meaning or relevance. [11] Architect and client may have different design ideas but the actual design is the antidote.

                    The difference between productive design and irrelevant design is in the understanding of principles. Metaphor is both objective and subjective, what is seen and what is not seen; for the public and for the designer. Even the distinction between the client and the designer is between practice making metaphors with skill, knowledge and resources. One of many warrants is “recognizing” , exemplified by operating the front door of a castle as we would the front door of our apartment; another warrant is the “adaptive uses” of obsolete buildings to new uses as adapting a factory to multi- family residential use. We see the common space and structure and reason that the building codes written to protect the health , safety and welfare of the general public can be adapted and the property re-zoned to fit the new uses in the fabric of the mixed-use zoned area. We can [12] “comprehend abstract concepts (building codes, design layouts, and building codes) and perform abstract reasoning”. (Design and planning). There is a design vocabulary for the public and one for the contactors, building officials, trade, etc. The metaphor for the public is social, political, corporate, contextual and familiar; the metaphor for the contractors is technical, legal, and constrained by the laws of physics, engineering and government.

                   Design is both a product and process and occasionally people focus on metaphor, the product of design Metaphor is both explicit and implicit; [13] The difference between the indirect uses of metaphor and the direct use of language to explain the world is referred to tangential thinking, that approaching a subject from its edges without getting to the point. For example when users accept works which are vague, inane, and non-descript, evasive, and disorienting they are accepting inane metaphors. When they are provided public housing, “ticky-tack” subdivisions, anonymous canyons of plain vanilla towers (with countless nameless windows, offices with a sea of desks, nameless workstations and the daunting boredom of straight highways on a desert plain) they are given indirect metaphors.

                   This too applies to works of architecture which assembles and constructs the minimum in a stoic fashion considering the least needed to produce a work that fills the minimum economy of its commission. As such many architectural works escape the many and various realities settling for a minimum of expression of and otherwise prolific potential. Elements or the whole metaphor can be referents when the design metaphor is cast into language and in architecture that language is ultimately the building. [14] The building incarnates the basic principle of an expression with its literal meaning and corresponding truth conditions can, in various ways that are specific to the metaphor, call to mind another meaning and corresponding set of truths.” In other words “one thing reminds us of another”.

                    We can see a graphic, natural form, or sculpture and explain in words what we see with our eyes. The words we use are symbols for what (metaphors) we already know, but the combination of these particular words about the specific visual is unique. Elements of the metaphor and the metaphor are referents because they refer to something out side of themselves. . Without apparent rhyme of reason metaphors of all arts have a way of recalling other metaphors of other times and places. In my mind I recall Brooklyn brick warehouses on Atlantic Ave. with turn of the century Ford trucks and men adorned in vests, white shirts and bow ties loading packages from those loading docks under large green metal canopies. The streets are coble stones. I can cross to this image when seeing most old brick buildings in Leipzig, San Francisco, or Boston. In these cases the metaphor is the referent. Designs are capable of analysis and appraisal [11] as various subject matter, from the most mundane to the most abstruse scientific theories, can only be comprehended via metaphor, as each perceives a different part of the metaphor and with one’s own unique metaphors where some notice the conditions, others the operations , others the ideals and yet others the goals of the designs.

                    As one reifies the form with the words, new truths about perception, context and identity become apparent. Even an anonymous Florentine back ally’s brick wall, carved door, wall fountain, shuttered windows, building height, coloration of the fresco. Sometimes our focus is on interaction, the process of design. Design is an interaction in which designer and client, designer and users maintain what they think are mutually exclusive positions, and they seek to resolve their disagreement, differences. They are in a surrogate relationship where the relationship between designer and user is one of trust. [3] “Architecturally, a surrogate is "a replacement that is used as a means for transmitting benefits from a context in which its’ user may not be a part”. Here, too, the user trusts the metaphor and its referents. In this way architecture’s metaphors bridge from the program, designs and contactors to a shelter and trusted habitat. The user enters and occupies the habitat with him having formulated but not articulated any its characteristics. Yet it works. “It makes sense, therefore, to speak of two sides to a surrogate, the user side and the context side (from which the user is absent or unable to function). “

                            Each of us uses others to achieve a benefit for ourselves. “We have that ability”. “None of us is just a person, a lived body, or just an organism. We are all three and more. We are singulars who own and express ourselves in and through them. In my early twenties I diagramed a being as “”appetite”, “desire” and “mind”. I defined each and described there interrelationships and support of one another. Metaphor is one and all of these and our first experiences of sharing life with in to what are outside of us. [3] Our mother language and other primary things we too ascribe like relations with objects and even buildings assigning them the value from which we may benefit and which may support. We cannot separate these three from each other so that it follows that we may find it impossible to separate us from the external metaphors. Inferences that are not yet warranted can be real even before we have the evidence.

                         Metaphors are accepted at face value (prima fascia) and architecture is accepted at face value [3] “It is surely desirable to make a good use of linguistic surrogates”. “A common language contains many usable surrogates with different ranges, all kept within the limited confines that an established convention prescribes”. It is amazing how that different people can understand one another and how we can read meaning and conduct transactions with non-human extents, hence architecture. Architecture is such a “third party” to our experience, yet understandable, and in any context. In his search for what is real Weiss says he has explored the large and the small and the relationships that realities have to one another. “ Accustomed to surrogates architecture is made by assuming these connections are real and have benefit. Until they are built and used we trust that they will benefit the end user. They seek to convince each other, but at the same time they are open to influence themselves. Science studies how designer and client go about resolving their difference into a single metaphor that might be acceptable to both the client and the public”.

                      This brings us to design which is the field of study in which rhetoric, logic, linguistics, engineering, art, architecture, building, behavioral psychology, philosophy, and sociology meet and like rhetoric where we derive our concern for the audience. Collectively: architecture interior, product, fashion and industrial design are much more because they involve the manipulating by sketches, plans and diagrams spaces, boundaries, materials, volumes, shapes and forms. Design is not only cerebral and conceptual but tactile and artistic. In stark contrast to contemporary abstract architecture today’s rhetoric often has negative connotations, including insincerity, vacuity, bombast and ornamentation. Yet it has a passionate yearning for the expression of the materials and their properties.

                    Historically, classical understanding of rhetoric was the study of how messages influence people focus on the development of communication of knowledge between speakers and listeners, in the case of building design between designer and user. One example is [15] instructive metaphors which create an analogy between a to-be-learned- system(target domain) and a familiar system(metaphoric domain)” . It was in recognition of the responsibility of the relationship between design and users as between the properties of materials that Frank Lloyd Wright separated from the architecture of Louis Sullivan and what spurned the collective work of the Bauhaus in Germany , that is to express the truth about the building’s systems, materials, open life styles, use of light and air and bringing nature into the buildings environment, not to mention ridding building of the irrelevant and time worn cliches of building design decoration, and traditional principles of classical architecture as professed by the Beaux-Arts [2] movement.

                    Many critiques ascribe their behavior and works with integrity, elegance and consequence. All of this ushered in a primary change to the aesthetic of equipoise when ” unity, symmetry and balance” were replaced by “asymmetrical tensional relationships: ” between, “dominant, subdominant and tertiary” forms and the results of science and engineering influence on architectural design a new design metaphor was born. The Bauhaus found the metaphor in all the arts, the commonalties in making jewelry, furniture, architecture, interior design, decoration, lighting, industrial design, etc. [10] In this sense,” thinking rhetorically” means reasoning with audience predispositions in mind, a definite prerequisite in architectural design and the function of the metaphor to make the strange familiar. From logic we derived our concern with the form and structure of reasoning. Today, logic is often mistakenly seen as encompassing only formal, symbolic and mathematical reasoning. Informal logic, from which design borrows, is grounded in ordinary language, art, sculpture, geometry, and describes reasoning patterns that lack the certainty of mathematics. [10] Ethical considerations figure prominently in design because metaphors affect people.

                     Any attempt to affect other people raises ethical issues; it is a limitation on freedom of choice; it is the application of superior to inferior force. But design seeks to achieve ethical influence; it does not influence people against their will but seeks their free assent. Yet buildings are externally intrusive and public giving the public no choice but to see them . This fact alone contributes to designers and public officials making sure they are politically, socially, and culturally correct. And , in a pluralistic and diverse society welcoming bland, abstract, non-descript so as not to offend and be something everyone can imagine. Without influence, the conditions of society and community are not possible. We are virtually all about metaphors between each other and our surroundings. Design respects different ways of thinking and reasoning knowing that metaphors are a way of reasoning. Life drawing of a metaphorical work dramatizes the way in which we approach the technical metaphor as life drawing involves rendering on paper what is seen without concern for its function, history or identity. Drawing and seeing in this way is about the only time we can confront a metaphorical work and construct its image, however accurately, by eye to hand motor activity absent of the conceptual metaphor or the metaphor it may conjure. While the very act is metaphorical in that there are two referents, the object and artist, the technique results in a drawing which is indeed a picture as accurate as the eye and hand can render leaving the conceptual for another time.

                  Perceiving and seeing, in general, requires rigor and some training. Most of commonplace training comes with use and familiarity, but “seeing” is a learned behavior and metaphors very much depend on this ability. Much of the metaphor presumes this discipline to one or another degree. Of course, the more disciplined and trained the more will be the metaphor experience.

                   To illustrate how the metaphor is a key to the built environment [10] this book will explore the nature of architectural design metaphors.

                 a. I will try to accomplish several goals

1. Learn a vocabulary that helps us to recognize and describe design metaphors.

2. We will become aware of the significance of choice and will broaden our understanding of the choices available to designers, architects and users.

3. We will develop standards for appraising design and explaining what will make them better.

4. We will examine a variety of historical and contemporary design examples. .

5. We should improve our abilities both as analysts and as designers.

             b. We will follow an organizational plan

1. We will begin by reviewing the assumptions underlying design and the historical development in the field.

2. We will then explore strategies and tactics of design construction, applications and use.

3. We will consider the components of design in more detail and consider how they work.

4. We will investigate the concept of validity (unintended consequences of metaphor) and consider the fallacies in design.

5. We will investigate how design functions in society- the persona, technical and public spheres.

6. Finally, we will review a project proformas to apply what we have learned about making and perceiving architectural design metaphors.

Remember, [12] not withstanding “idolatry” the metaphors are the contexts of life’s dramas as our physical bodies are read by our neighbors finding evidence for inferences about social, political and philosophical claims about our culture and their place in the universe. Even if you are now weak in reading metaphors,

know that they are all about and part of the illusive mystery

and reason your environment brings you no joy.  


What are the underlying assumptions about metaphor and how do they affect the design and use of the built environment? The reader will find that when I refer to making metaphors I either mean design making or a reading audience. In addition to what I have described in Chapter one and elsewhere, design includes research, choices, and decision-making. Because metaphor is a vehicle of communication there are several key assumptions that we make when we apply the metaphoric structure ( the subject of this study) . In this regard this account will focus on five key (and underlying) assumptions. First, design takes place with an audience in mind and the audience is the ultimate judge of success or failure. Second, design occurs only under conditions of uncertainty, about matters that could be otherwise( there are as many design solutions as there are designers and users) . Third, design involves justification (rather than proof, hence design juries, charattes, programs and contract documents). Forth, despite its seemingly adversarial character, design is basically cooperative (amongst surrogates) . Fifth, designers, architects, contactors, client and users accept risks, and their nature and significance will be explained.
Since design takes place with an audience in mind the audience is the ultimate judge of success or failure. The essence of communication is to be heard; we are relationship creatures which utter sounds and hear others to learn,, understand our place in the universe and interact. Design is merely a complex extension of this process. The design is seen and the audience reacts with words. Historical examples establish the significance of the audience. Belmopan city was a project I designed using building systems I selected where local unskilled workers could merely assemble pre-manufactured parts; where I designed open dog run areas to reflect the traditional house plan and indigenous cladding from Belize. Barwa City was designed to provide low cost housing to immigrant workers and their families in an area which was once a toxic waste dump and only accessible by a highway which was overrun with traffic .I managed to get additional roads and access to the site and mitigate their toxic land. King Faisel University New Campus was designed by a French architectural and engineering firm which had many separated buildings and located on the Arabian Gulf. The theme of the design included round columns and was only designed after numerous meetings, questionnaires and statistical analysis of needs. These examples suggest that the claims being advanced were not universal truths but subject to the acceptance of actual listeners. The particulars of an audience’s situation will affect its values, priorities, and methods of judgment. The audience for design consists of the people the designers’ wants to influence; not necessarily those who are immediately present. Recognizing differences in audience beliefs does not entail accepting the idea that any belief is as good as any other. The consequence of this could be blasé, inane, or plain vanilla outcomes where apathetic design produces apathetic results.
However, design takes place under conditions of uncertainty and need. We do not design something that is already designed- although even the notion of design is audience dependent. Whether the architect goes through rigorous programming or simple intuition the design is made as a metaphor meant to be shared, used and unfolded. The metaphor and sub-metaphors are all meant to be perceived, used and linked to human scale and particular users in a particular place for particular reason(s). While some designs are Pavolivain looking for responses based on certain stimuli others generally project pictorial references for enjoyment. Yet there are haphazard fabrications which defy peculiarization such as pre-engineered manufactured buildings.
Yes, these too have their own aesthetic and when metaphors are applied in a metaphoric way are thought to be very beatiful . However, things that are not designed are potentially controversial. If these are set in residential neighborhoods amidst single family residences they will be rejected as inappropriate and dissonant. The lack of control and disarray is normally rejected in any context.
The style of “de-construction” capitalizes on discombobulation.
“Deconstructivism in architecture, also called “deconstruction” , is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s. [16] It is characterized by ideas of fragmentation, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin, non-rectilinear shapes which serve to distort and dislocate some of the elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many Deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos”. As an aside this study is not to determine the merits, metaphor, relevance and aesthetics of one or another style. It is not even to discuss style as a particular kind, sort, or type, as with reference to form, appearance, or character: the baroque style; Yet when the style of the house becomes too austere for users it is obviously a metaphoric matter. However, that being said, very often clients will make their style preferences known to their designer and words and graphics so that one or another aesthetic style may be employed. We will study this in more detail in the chapters on Aesthetics and History.

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