The link between AI and Architecture
bariefezbarringten.gmail.com (coments and queries welcome)
As AI and architecture mediate and control their mutual interactions metaphoric axioms will have beneficial impact on both the future of architecture and AI because there is common metaphor between natural (NI) and artificial intelligence (AI). The inference warrants that for both architectures’ (AI and building) , master builder is an interdisciplinary, multi-crafted and multi-venue team, They are also both arts since they wed intentional ideas to craft and they both make metaphors, the commonality to all the arts. While “architect” actually means master builder and “architecture” the product of the master builder, this is historically identified with habitable buildings. The warrant to the inference of the resolution is that the computer industries (and virtual designers) have made a metaphor referring to the word “architecture” with its conceptual design and fundamental operational structures of computer systems. And, that you can assume that what is true for the parts is true for the whole. We can assume that what is true for these specific examples can be generalized and true for the whole. Already, IT and AI industry metaphorically compare their sciences and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals with the ways and means traditional architects design buildings. There is an interconnectivity between the metaphor of computer’s instruction set architecture, or ISA, machine language (or assembly language), Microarchitecture and system design.
Theoretically, I warrant that the as the body and mind of AI has identified itself with “architecture” there is an opportunity to use those links to apply and manage risks of AI to building architecture. However, benign, risks include operating system downtime, programming errors, inaccuracy in labeling and dimensions, misreading building codes, local ordinances, misinterpreting FEMA regulations and potential tampering with building security systems. . Further risks include erroneous selection of material and building systems that may expose architects to errors and omissions suits, so many of the general and specific axioms guidelines can be uploaded into the AI architectural system. So with AI potential risk  what can be the impact of artificial intelligence on the future of building architecture?
Biographical note: IBM FORTRAN “4” classes at Yale, Program planning for several Silicone Valley data companies and Gulf Oil Corp computerized Project Management System (PMS) later published by John Wiley and sons. Columbia University coursework in behavioral psychology under Ralph Hefferline and others in voice/linguistics, Bachelor’s of Fine Arts from Pratt Institute and Master of Architecture from Yale University where I was mentored in metaphors and metaphysics by Dr. Paul Weiss. For research I founded the New York City not-for–profit corporation called Laboratories for Metaphoric Environments. In addition to authoring over fifteen published monographs by learned journals I have spent 20 years in Saudi Arabia and have written a book containing pen and ink drawings on perceptions of 72 European cities. Institutional affiliations: Global University ;American Institute of Architects; Florida Licensed Architect; Programming Chairperson for the Gulf Coast Writers Association; National Council of Architectural Registration Boards; Al-Umran association of Saudi Arabia, American Society of Interior Designers; and founding president of Architects International Group of the Mid-East.
One of the links between AI and architecture is that “Artificial” is to buildings so “intelligence” is to architecture. Artificial Intelligence and architecture translate metaphorically and their bi-products operate on their own as a work of architecture is as an AI system. They both are made the same, “artificially” (not natural architecture) and “intelligence” they think independently, the building guides and direct. Architects and AI designers both strive for the same result a product that when completed “works”. As I argue the benefits’ and risks’ of architectural axioms I condition one with the other even though the risk to building design application is minimal and any consequences benign. I present this intertwined argument because such dangers are currently on the minds of many in the AI community. To talk about one without consideration of the other might seem presumptuous and naïve. However, in my opinion as a licensed design professional, the benefits to an AI user-context would far outweigh the risks. Whatever malfunctions and dangers would only affect a specific well contained user and be easily controlled. Worst case would be a cost of time and expense to repair and redo as is the profession’s current practice. Relevance: The resolution to my claims is that architectural metaphoric axioms themselves sufficiently manage the marginal risk  of AI being a potential adversary limiting the intelligence of machines and explaining the essential difference between human intelligence and artificial intelligence. In my view architectural AI is best viewed as a surrogate and not an adversary! While architectural metaphoric axioms contribute managing the risk  of AI being a potential adversary, it is left to society to debate whether machines have a mind and consciousness.
Within this context the challenge for AI managers is AI’s capacity to discern metaphors (humans have the capacity and capability to make use and discern metaphors). AI challenge is to abridge these architectural metaphoric axioms into their platform’s programs and systems, when they do this AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will both be improved by metaphoric axioms and mange risk . To achieve this goal I believe the AI community can regulate, legislate, monitor and license AI and its architectural devices and thus engraft AI with sympathetic human characteristics and concerns. The link between AI and Architecture. Introduction: Because artificial intelligence is inherently axiomatic, interdisciplinary  and metaphoric it is uniquely suited to combine risk management and building architecture. Metaphoric axioms improve AI’s and architecture’s interactions by likening it to architecture. As AI architecture, the “strange” of AI becomes linked to the “familiar” architecture and the two can be compared: AI and architecture, they both can benefit from a metaphoric vocabulary. As most AI/IT activities, they work through digital and mechanical devices, mainframes, hard drives, processors, motherboards and chips, as well as application software, firmware, middleware, (which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems) , and system software (such as operating systems) , which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software, these are all the body to the brain of AI. To warrant my claim as other disciplines these bodies are driven by some form of axioms (structured vocabulary) however, about AI architectural work, there is presently little in the way of axioms. Historically, in the early eighties, Silicone Valley data companies (I consulted such companies in Sunnyvale between 1979 and 1981) scoured the market for soft information to build proposed programs for computer aided design (CAD) intended to be driven by design professionals to actually lay down graphic images instead of hand drafted (pencil on paper) drawings. Having put traditional draftsman out of the loop, and, developed “master specs” for computerized specifications, the next step is now to reduce the expense of design personal and extend the design capability and capacity.
Thirty years later the design industry claims that what can be done for the design of manufacturing plants, machine parts and assemblies may be applicable to creating communities, environments, developments and specific buildings. The resolution’s presumed context is that it is not just limited to information technology (IT) but a presumption of intelligence assuming man can make something which can think for itself as today’s computer games, medical procedures, aircraft and military devices The below examples show that when programmed, systems can make judgments in a strange environment and metaphorically make the strange familiar (metaphorically) and systematically design buildings. (Where design is intentionally originating and developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or component). The impact of artificial intelligence on the future of architecture: practice, process and products are that today there are “smart buildings” with internal mechanical and electrical systems that respond to the specific behavioral patterns of occupants. Below you will find potentials for the use of metaphoric architectural axioms where artificial intelligence examples have been applied to designing buildings without necessarily acting as an “architect”, where design is only one architectural function. No more than would we have diagnostic equipment and robotics perform sovereign surgery on a doctor’s patient. Currently all other systems use protocols, parameters and axiomatic frameworks, axioms and guidelines needed to facilitate artificial diagnostics, analysis, and design of buildings at one or another level is the impact of artificial intelligence on the future of architecture. To complete the case for the resolution that AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will be improved and managed risks [ff] by metaphoric axioms I have provided a short summary of the claims and examples a of the 83 axioms I have authored in another much longer monograph 
Leaving those details of all the axioms for another essay suffice it to say that these axioms are essential drivers of AI architectural activities. As a predicate this AI system can be used by the architectural profession to expand its use of metaphors and services to manage the design process by interfacing with clients, society, culture, contactors and building authorities and finally selecting the appropriate axioms and managing the overall design process . These architectural metaphoric axioms will have an impact on the future of AI and building architecture. Since a host for the architectural metaphoric axioms is needed I warrant my inference that even today’s architectural practice has changed, communicating between many disciplines via the internet. “The availability of reliable, high-speed electronic connectivity enabled collaborative design team’s function irrespective of physical distance.  This calls for new type of design and simulation environment—one that facilitates automated searching and locating of satisfying and optimizing parts, integration of selected parts in an assembly, and simulation of the overall design that is distributed over the Internet”. An increasing quantity of building applications of AI work is based on  “Building Information Modeling (BIM) generating and managing building data during its life cycle”. AI neither promises uncontrolled sovereign operations, inventions, creativity, and innovative design but instead it promises to operate within the parameters and limits designed by man and if it could innovate, invent and create it would only do so with either specific geometry or geometric axioms.
However said, Science fiction writers extrapolate the potential of AI beings aimed at ultimately destroying their creators. This metaphor to Frankenstein is to our culture as intimidating as is other unsavory results of cloning. Examples to the inferences where already industrial design for automobiles, aircraft and boats use design applications to meet aerodynamic, seismic, wind, structural loads, etc. These already account for the strength of materials, if given, or can optimally select materials based on its library of manufactured products. In addition  virtual building environments (VBE) are now producing graphic scenarios to estimate, plan, buy and build; already artificial intelligence is having an impact of on the future of architecture. Examples and concerns applying AI to building design.
Without concerns for risks the practical and the esoteric applications of AI to the built environment is often the result of metaphoric inventive processes, shocks and imaginative invention such as  ANTS which is an innovative example of an AI application to design buildings. “The Autonomic Nanotechnology Swarm (ANTS) is a generic mission architecture consisting of miniaturized, autonomous, self-similar, reconfigurable, addressable components forming structures. The components/structures have wide spatial distribution and multi-level organization. This ‘swarm’ (metaphor) behavior is inspired (metaphoric association) by the success of social insect colonies where within their specialties, individuals outperform generalists and with sufficiently efficient social interaction and coordination, groups of specialists outperform groups of generalists.  (Multi-disciplinary) Axiomatically, the type of information that is preserved in the traditional built environment is organized-complexity: precisely the type of information that defines living systems themselves. Thus, the traditional built environment consists of evolved and discovered solutions (schemata) that make our life easier and more meaningful” 
That having been said as ACTS combines design and construction “Research in construction automation at the University of Reading led to the formulation of a computer-integrated, component-based construction system.  The Reading Building System was rationalized for automation following a systematic study of the construction processes involved in the design and erection of a variety of building types, especially high-tech offices. Computer-aided design (CAD) packages were written that used Parts Set components as primitives and that offered flexibility in design that was so often lacking in earlier approaches to system building. At the same time, a family of automation aids was developed to manipulate the parts that were modeled in the CAD In the Netherlands  “
Artificial Design focuses on the application in architecture and design of the algorithmic approach to art being developed at the Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam. Once a style has been defined the tool can suggest any desired number of alternative designs for a given document. The Department of Artificial Architecture develops programs which generate random specifications of 3-dimensional objects. Each of these programs employs a "visual grammar" to define an infinite set of structures, and then draws random samples from this space”. “The science of design usually conceives of AI as a set of tools for structuring the process, or planning, or optimizing.  This further warrants that “ Rarely does the computer explore a space of designs, and in doing so, it is generally following a set of precise rules, so the machine is doing little else than repeating a series of mechanical steps, faster than a human could. Creativity is usually considered to lie outside the realm of what computers can do”. Evolutionary Design (ED), the creation of designs by computers using evolutionary methods is a new research area with an enormous potential”.
To manage some of the risk  using existing metaphoric architectural axioms manufactured buildings, pre-engineered steel buildings, mobile homes, decks, kitchens, lighting, structures which are just some of the examples of pre-designed programs allows user to input variables to receive a design result. There are both similarities and differences between human natural intelligence and artificial intelligence which are metaphorically associated with the concerns of people and their aspirations to shape the post-industrial society. Metaphorical fears that people and not machines shape society adopted from the critics of the industrial and information revolution. In a way this is risk mitigation by reducing adopting metaphors that make the strange familiar and limit the unknowns. However, on closer examination, reality and fiction are different since artificial intelligence is authored by humans (the imagined fear is that what was created by man could turn against man when the AI capability to design, redesign and rebuild goes awry).
Especially in building design, I argue that since there is a difference between the imagined, possible the reality of the probable is marginal, isolated, miniscule and therefore contained. The challenge to the AI community is to contain runaway metaphorical thinking, where the public looks to close down human capacity for social innovation and sustainability. Military, design, engineering, accounting, medical, scientific, manufacturing and education are just some of the fields already augmenting artificial intelligence with human management. As AI, Metaphor is one of the tools of a  'knowledge society' and to 'human-centered' technologies and systems. One the attributes of anything artificial is that it is stagnant, engrafted and reflective of its creator, it does not have its own free will at least not that beyond what has been given by its designers. While humans change and adopt the artificial remains as it was unless it also has the ability to rebuild, adopt and change. This scope, range and amplitude of this capacity are likewise conditioned by its creator. Like a work of architecture, machine, weapons and medical equipment, self analysis, reprogramming and change are built-in. Dividing the discipline's metaphors between technical  and conceptual can improve AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions.
The brain can be simulated. Hans Moravec, Ray Kurzweil and others have argued that it is technologically feasible to copy the brain directly into hardware and software, and that such a simulation will be essentially identical to the original.  “The appropriately programmed computer with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense human beings have minds. Searle counters this assertion with his Chinese room argument, which asks us to look inside the computer and try to find where the "mind" might be. The resolution to my claims is that AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will be improved by metaphoric axioms is supported by claims, inferences and warrants as AI’s and architecture’s mutual interactions will not only manage marginal risks but be improved by metaphoric axioms which will have an impact on the future of architecture and AI field. Philosophers and scientists concerned with ethics, morals and sociopolitical agreements critically challenge  the limits of intelligent machines while proponents of architectural metaphoric axioms recreate the capabilities of the human mind. These philosophers and scientists question if there is an essential difference between human intelligence and artificial intelligence. They wonder can a machine have a mind and consciousness.
There is already a difference in perception between scholars and practitioners. Since both humans and machines perceive their environment and take actions they maximize their chances of success and manage risks while they likewise wonder if machines have a similar human capacity and capability to discern metaphors. “The field (artificial intelligence) was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. Can the artificial find the range of unpredictable, whimsical, and historical stored in the human be replicated. While for one it may be replicated but what about the trillions of other possibilities and potentials in humans not inherent in the artificial, as man, so does AI manage risks.  “Roughly speaking, AI is the attempt by computer scientists to model or simulate intelligent behavior on computers” This in and of itself is metaphoric, where one thing is stated in terms of the other. The intelligent behavior is the commonplace/commonality to both the human and the machine. We seem to want to make machines like us because we are the commonality. If we cannot clone mankind we can clone our body similar to the ancients who strove to be immortalized and as man so does AI manage risks. The mind-machine metaphor, central to AI, appears in jurisprudence as well. Sometimes it is explicit, as in Jerome Frank's image of the judicial slot machine: Judging is seen as a process wherein cases are fed into the hopper of the machine, a crank is turned, and justice is dispensed at the output.  The field of artificial intelligence is interesting to a student of metaphor, because it was explicitly founded upon a metaphor - several of them, in fact. In the 1950s, a group of scientists decided to try to provide the computer with intelligence. Their goal seemed attainable due to a common metaphorical identification of the computer with a brain.  From their efforts emerged the field of artificial intelligence, or AI. As I thought about the basic, or root metaphors of AI, I realized that they took a form resembling a classical syllogism, a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years: one of the axioms driving the relationship is that the computer is a brain, the premise in a syllogism containing the minor term, which will form the subject of the conclusion. “
Thinking is computing,  concluding that if we provide the computer with sophisticated programs, it will develop a mind similar to human minds. , in risk free circumstances. Artificial systems and the biological ones are similar for their dynamicity, because they cope with the new situations in a way that is controlled and creative at the same time. . In the case of architectural design this can only leads to safer, healthier and “greener’ buildings.  There is a body of study comparing AI to metaphors as I did in 1967 comparing architecture to metaphors. . There is ample discussions on the analogies, symbolisms and metaphors linking machines and minds, computers and humans , and artificial intelligence with natural intelligence it is therefore beneficial to apply the science, claims and axioms about metaphors. . But what about axioms derived by social, psychological, philosophical, cognitive scientist? In other works  I have derived 83 axioms which I could apply both here have only discussed the ones with major comparative value. As they did with AI we did with architecture and are using these axioms and findings to compare human and machines.
For example  humans are able to generate metaphors by describing an operation in an unfamiliar way and thus able to make what was already somewhat known dominant. The generative metaphor is the name for a process of symptoms of a particular kind of seeing-as, the “meta-pherein” or “carrying –over” of frames or perspectives from one domain of experience to another. This process he calls generative which many years earlier WJ Gordon called the Metaphoric Way of Knowing  and 2.1 Paul Weiss called “associations” . Both humans and computers can generate dead metaphors where one really does not contain any fresh metaphor insofar as it does not really “get thoughts across” ; “language seems rather to help one person to construct out of his own stock of mental stuff something like a replica, or copy, of someone’s else’s thoughts”. Man’s natural culture is a product of man-made, unnatural things, that instead of culture shaping the computer it is the computer (artificial intelligence) that shapes the culture.
At first, culture creates the machines then the artificial intelligence modifies the culture. Then new modified culture creates new machines, etc.  The affect of the metaphor on other metaphors with all its links and consequences is manifest in the conduit  which leads to one after the other and a continuation of the first. On the one hand AI can result in prescriptive design vs. abnormal, different, irregular, occasional, rare, sometime, and unusual design solutions with such projects as CFS truss system  , Arup/cultural society and emergence  . Emergence  is an important new concept in artificial intelligence, information theory, digital technology, economics, climate studies, material science and biometric engineering. It is a development which is set to inform not only the construction of buildings, but also the composition of new materials. As a new science, coupled with material and technological innovations, it is set to enter architecture into a new phase of transition including new material processes and technologies that enable the production of complex architectural forms and effects.
Mathematics of emergence underlies advanced manufacturing processes, how it is incorporated in the design process by scientists developing new materials, by mass market and niche product manufacturers, by engineers and by architects. The new science demands new strategies for design, strategies that have a remarkable similarity to the evolutionary design development and optimization processes of nature. It involves the intersection of a broad scope of disciplines including advanced structural and biomimetic engineering, the mathematics of morphogenesis and computer science with particular respect to artificial life and evolutionary computation, in order to set forth an operative notion of emergence for architectural design  .
Aesthetics, human to machine admixture and AI as complex design tool Today it is possible for AI to design complex structures making possible the use of materials and structures heretofore uneconomical, too costly and time consuming to ever be considered, for example the steel light weight truss system  of a conventional roof . Not withstanding the work of Afrred I Tauber’s Elusive Synthesis: Aesthetics and Science and considering the five senses of human experience defining aesthetics at best warrants a negotiated and interdependency between man and his AI system. What can be systemically or specifically programmed will never reconstruct the human that directly senses and then with a sixth sense makes some illogical but yet pleasing redirection to himself feel, experience and enjoy the environment.
Aesthetics is a guiding principle in matters of artistic beauty and taste, metaphor is the warrant to taste and is used to form works of art and architecture. Aesthetics is also reasoning matters having to do with understanding perceptions. While AI tools may be designed to replicate man’s abilities to navigate, perceive, and judge the environment, AI cannot enjoy the experience as one man (or the collective of all men).Then the AI device still refers back to its creator to make sense of the events. It is to this extent that AI thinking can intelligently, without the normative sense feedback, be involved in aesthetic experience, judgment and consciousness. It is its limitation of total sovereignty, autonomy and independence of AI. It is likewise questionable, as a design device, to replace human designers as the affects the quality of the aesthetics of the design outcomes. But there is no doubt that the AI designer can change the paradigms of design outcomes where time, space and cost would otherwise be prohibited and therefore could potentially expand the, scope , breadth and depth of programs to fully design green buildings, solve environmental issues, optimize, use of space, materials and use materials in new ways. Multi-disciplinary access from arts, sciences, philosophies are economical and feasible with enough capacity and devises so that buildings and their systems can include the sculptors aesthetics for shapes and forms, the musicians ear for lyrical, harmony and the poets sense of rhyme, sense and inference, Not to mention behavior psychologist parameters of sequences and impacts of color, spaces, and distances, etc.
AI design will also facilitate client, user and occupant participation in the design process. So while AI can perceive and act on signs of the senses the artificial is not natural and has no natural understanding of the senses. Aesthetically, as “beauty is in the eyes of the beholder” the AI does “be” but not “behold”. In fact, since the world in which man inhabits us actually design more and not les control of our habitations, that is while we wish our habitations to be designed more humanely than machine, meaning that ideally it would be designed by us. “Us” being natural man augmented by a device but not managed by that device. We do not desire the aesthetic of machines. As example we don’t want to live in a factory, industrial park or warehouse. Even living in a space capsule can only be for limited times as it is devoid of nature. It is nature and free will which artificial lacks. AI is not a sinister possibility but an opportunity to optimize the efficiency of nature in human terms. Human architects both compose the program and manage to reify its contents from words to diagrams and diagrams to two dimensional graphics and three dimensional models to reify and bring- out (educate) the user’s mind and fulfillment of unspoken and hidden needs. Needs which may or may not have been programmed and intended; the metaphor is the final resolution until it is built and used. Then it is subject to further tests of time, audience, trends, social politics, demographic shifts, economics, and cultural changes.
The aesthetics of the process and the product are indigenous to natural man metaphor and a can be metaphorically assimilated by artificial intelligence architects. Conclusion: There are two conclusions, the first is that the risks which AI architectural axioms mitigate are benign, local and parochial to the profession and pose little danger to the general public. However, as a model and safe to develop it may be the proving ground and first small step to bolster public confidence to consider applying AI to other applications which may pose more of a risk to the public’s welfare. The second is as “artificial” is to buildings so “intelligence” is to architecture. Artificial Intelligence and architecture translate metaphorically and their bi-products operate on their own as work architecture is as an AI system. They both are made the same, artificially (not natural architecture) and intelligence they think independently, the building guides and direct. Architects and AI designers both strive for the same result a product that when completed “works”.
Citations listed alphabetically: Boyd, Richard; 1.14.0 Conrad, Ulrich; 1.3 Fraser, Bruce; 1.10.0 Gentner, Dedre ; 1.13.0 Gibbs, Jr., Raymond W.; 1.9.0 Glucksberg, Sam; 1.12.0 Jeziorski, Michael; 1.13.0 Kuhn, Thomas S.; 1.15.0 Keysar, Boaz; 1.12.0 Lakoff, George; 1.4 Mayer, Richard E.; 1.17.0 Miller, George A.; 1.11.0 Nigro, Georgia; 1.5.0 Ortony,Andrew;1.0 Oshlag, Rebecca S.; 1.18.0 Petrie, Hugh G; 1.18.0 Pylyshyn, Zeon W.; 1.16.0 Reddy. Michael J.; 1.2 Rumelhart, David E.; 1.7.0 Sadock, Jerrold M.; 1.6.0 Schon, Donald A. ; 1.1 Searle, John R.; 1.8.0 Sternberg, Robert J.; 1.5.0 Thomas G. Sticht; 1.19.0 Tourangeau, Roger; 1.5.0 Weiss,Paul; 1.4.11
1. “Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events. Those risks and prioritize risk reduction measures based on a strategy”.
2. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in their work Metaphors We Live By. Other cognitive scientists study subjects similar to conceptual metaphor under the labels "analogy" and "conceptual blending."
3. Axiom’s contextual forms Three levels of axioms matching three levels of AI disciplines which influence AI architectures. Multidiscipline: Macro most general where the metaphors and axioms and metaphors used by the widest and diverse AI disciplines, users and societies. All of society, crossing culture, disciplines, professions, industrialist arts and fields as mathematics and interdisciplinary vocabulary. Interdisciplinary axioms are between AI fields of art [I] whereas metaphors in general inhabit all these axioms drive a wide variety and aid in associations, interdisciplinary contributions and conversations about broad fields not necessary involved with a particular project but if about a project about all context including city plan, land use, institutions, culture and site selection, site planning and potent ional neighborhood and institutional involvement. Micro Discipline: Between AI architects all involved in making the built environment particularly on single projects involving relevant arts[I], crafts, manufactures, engineers, sub-con tractors and contactors. As well as owners, users, neighbors, governments agencies, planning boards and town councils.
4. Other monographs by Barie fez-Barringten Deriving the Multidiscipline axioms from Metaphor and Thought 
5. Distributed routine design over the internet with cooperating modem agents Pages: 209 by Mustafa Taner Eskil Michigan State University as advised by: Jon Sticklen Michigan State University: Published in 2004 by: Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA Year of Publication: 2004 ISBN:0-496-91545-2, Order Number:AAI3158940
6. One theory claims that Professor Charles M. Eastman at Georgia Institute of Technology coined the term. This theory is based on a view that the term Building Information Model is basically the same as Building Product Model, which Professor Eastman has used extensively in his book and papers since the late 1970s. ('Product model' means 'data model' or 'information model' in engineering.) Nevertheless, it is agreed upon that the term was popularized by Jerry Laiserin as a common name for a digital representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. According to him and others the first implementation of BIM was under the Virtual Building concept by Graphisoft's ArchiCAD, in its debut in 1987. Typically BIM uses three-dimensional, real-time, dynamic building modeling software to increase productivity in building design and construction. The process produces the Building Information Model (also abbreviated BIM), which encompasses building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantities and properties of building components.
7. VBE global network: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland: Copyright © VTT 2006 Virtual Building Environments (VBE) II project is a pivotal opportunity for Finnish Real Estate and Construction Cluster (RECC) to establish an international competitive advantage in the design, construction and operation of buildings.
8. NASA; Goddard Space Flight Center; http://ants.gsfc.nasa.gov/ArchandAI.html Official: Steven Curtis; Website Curator: James Daniel; Last Updated: April 2008. The President's Vision for Space Exploration initiated the transformation of NASA's extraordinary capabilities. Future ART structures will be capable of true autonomy using bi-level intelligence combining autonomic and heuristic aspects, acting as part of an Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm (ANTS). The Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm (ANTS) Architecture is well suited to remote space or ground operations. It is being implemented on a near term basis, using Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART). In the future, Super Miniaturized ART (SMART) will form highly reconfigurable networks of struts, acting as 3D mesh or 2D fabric to perform a range of functions on demand.
9. Architecture: Biological Form and Artificial Intelligence.; Nikos A. Salingaros (*) and Kenneth G. Masden II (**) ; University of Texas at San Antonio; (*) Department of Mathematics ; (**) College of Architecture; A revised version of this paper, with illustrations, is published in The Structurist, No. 45/46 (2006), pages 54-61.
10. Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Component-Based Modular Building Design” by C. Bridgewater, (Prof., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Imperial Coll. of Sci. Technol. and Medicine, South Kensington, London, SW7 2BU, England.) and B. L. Atkin, (Prof., Dept. of Constr. Mgmt. & Engrg., Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AZ, England.) Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 1994, pp. 469-488, (doi 10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3801(1994)8:4(469))
11. Algorithmic Architecture Institute of Artificial Art Amsterdam: Parklaan 55 3722 BD Bilthoven the Netherlands a. Eric Vreedenburgh and Remko Scha: "The Artificial City." In: Flip ten Cate (ed.): De Vrije Ruimte. Nieuwe Strategieën voor de Ruimtelijke Ordening. Amsterdam: Stichting Ontwerpen voor Nederland, 1998, pp. 154-155. [In Dutch.] b. Remko Scha: "Towards Architecture of Chance." In: Hans Konstapel, Gerard Rijntjes and Eric Vreedenburgh (eds.): De Onvermijdelijke Culturele Revolutie. (Den Haag: Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming, 1998), pp. 105-114. [In Dutch.] c. Jos de Bruin and Remko Scha: "Algoritmische architectuur is toegepaste toevalskunst." Automatisering Gids, April 25, 2003, p. 17.
12. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Building, Construction and Engineering, PO Box 56, Highett, Victoria, 3190, Australia.
13. Metaphor and Artificial Intelligence: A Special Double Issue of metaphor and Symbol Edited by John A. Barnden, Mark G. Lee Published by: Psychology Press Publication Date: 1st March 2001 ISBN: 978-0-8058-9730-2 this special issue arose out of a symposium on metaphor and artificial intelligence in which the main orientation was computational models and psychological processing models of metaphorical understanding. The papers in this issue discuss: *implemented computational systems for handling different aspects of metaphor understanding; *how metaphor can be accommodated in accepted logical representational frameworks; *psychological processes involved in metaphor understanding; and *the cross-linguistic cognitive reality of conceptual metaphors.
14. From http://www.springer.com/computer/artificial/journal/146 quote of New Visions of the Post-Industrial Society, Int. Conf. July 1994).
15. The technical is that all art [I], including AI expresses one thing in terms of another by its inherent and distinct craft. On the one hand there is the architect who acts as the master builder (head carpenter); and on the other the fountain of conceptual metaphors which expresses ideas as built conceptual metaphors other wise known as works of architecture. Techne is actually a system of practical knowledge as a craft or art informed by knowledge of forms, cybernetics and computational neuroscience computer scientists, programmers, are just some of the disciplines researching this craft.
16. This version is from Searle (1999), and is also quoted in Dennett 1991, p. 435. Searle's original formulation was "The appropriately programmed computer really is a mind, in the sense that computers given the right programs can be literally said to understand and have other cognitive states." (Searle 1980, p. 1). Strong AI is defined similarly by Russell & Norvig (2003, p. 947):
17. Artificial brain: Moravec 1988; Kurzweil 2005, p. 262; Russell Norvig, p. 957; and Crevier 1993, pp. 271 and 279 The most extreme form of this argument (the brain replacement scenario) was put forward by Clark Glymour in the mid-70s and was touched on by Zenon Pylyshyn and John Searle in 1980. Daniel Dennett sees human consciousness as multiple functional thought patterns; see "Consciousness Explained".
18. Mind, Machine, and Metaphor an Essay on Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning Alexander E. Silverman Westview Press 19. Artificial intelligence - metaphor or oxymoron? http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Artificial+intelligence+-+metaphor+or+oxymoron 19.1 Warren Blumenfeld, Pretty Ugly (New York New York, state, United States New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of: Perigee Books, 1989.) 19.2 Brad Darrach (1921-1997) was a journalist who wrote primarily for Time Inc. magazines including Time, Life, People and Sports Illustrated” and "Meet Shaky, The First Electronic Person." (Life, November 20, 1970, pp.58B-68.) 19.3 Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (born October 15, 1929) in Terre Haute, Indiana is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, & Stuart Dreyfus, Mind Over Machine. (New York: Free Press, 1986.) 19.4 Marvin Minsky, "Artificial Intelligence." (Scientific American, September, 1966, pp.246-260.) 19.5 Michael Polanyi, Personal Knowledge. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 19.6 Barbara Wallraff, "The Literate Computer." (Atlantic Monthly, January, 1988, pp. 64-71.) 19.7 West & L. Travis, "The Computational Metaphor and Artificial Intelligence." (AI Magazine, 12, (1), 1991, pp.64-79.) 19.8 Dr. Raymond Gozzi, Jr., is Associate Professor in the Television-Radio Department at Ithaca College
20. HTTP://WWW.COMPUTERHOPE.COM IS COPYRIGHTED 1998-2009. . The first electrical binary programmable computer analogy was to the adding machine called the Z1 originally created by Germany's Konrad Zuse in his parent’s living room between 1936 and 1938
21. Metaphor and AI: Statistic Relevance and Cognitive Role. A Study on the Verb "guidare" (to drive) by Simona Musco, Università degli Studi della Calabria, 2005-06. What is the way man understands metaphor? The principal question is about the possibility of the existence of physical systems different from man that is able to reproduce the same phases that take to the comprehension of a metaphor.
22. The first lectures "Architecture as the Making of Metaphors" were organized and conducted by Barie Fez-Barringten near the Art and Architecture building at the Museum of Fine Arts Yale University 11/02/67 until 12/04/67. During a prior series of colloquia at Yale on art, Irving Kriesberg [C]  had spoken about the characteristics of painting as a metaphor. It seemed at once that this observation was applicable to architecture, to design of occupiable forms.
23. The Computational Metaphor and Artificial Intelligence: A Reflective Examination of a Theoretical False work by David M. West, Larry E. Travis Considers questions of metaphor in science and the computational metaphor in AI. Specifically, three issues: the role of metaphor in science and AI, an examination of the computational metaphor, and an introduction to the possibility and potential value of using alternative metaphors as a foundation for AI theory.
24. Generative metaphor: A perspective on problem-setting in social policy: by Donald A. Schon
25. Metaphorical way of knowing by William J.J Gordon: Gordon began formulating the Synectics method in 1944 with a series ... (Cambridge), ...
26. Paul Weiss: Born in 1901, Paul Weiss has made major contributions to several branches of philosophy, as well as to teaching and scholarly publishing. Before his death at 101 years of age completed a book called "Emphatics," about the use of language" Surrogates," published by Indiana University Press. Weiss says that: “A surrogate is "a replacement that is used as a means for transmitting benefits from a context in which its’ user may not be a part”. Architecture’s metaphors bridge from the program, designs and contactors to a shelter and trusted habitat.
27. The conduit metaphor: A case of frame conflict in our language about language: by Michael J. Reddy.
28. Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture about Glasarchitektur Ulrich Conrad'
29. TrusSteel is the product of over fifty-four years of combined experience in the truss and CFS building products industry. Built upon the extensive truss engineering and software knowledge of Alpine, an experienced staff of CFS design engineers and many years of designing and building efficient trusses, it is no surprise that more TrusSteel trusses are installed on commercial projects each year than any other proprietary CFS truss system. With computerized design what would take hours for each member, now is done in minutes and multiplied time the hundreds in each system the material is now economically available.
30. Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies by Michael Hensel, Michael Weinstock Hensel, M., Menges, A., Weinstock, M. (eds.): 2004, Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Architectural Design, Vol. 74 No. 3, Wiley Academy, London. (ISBN: 0-470-86688-8)
Researched Publications: Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs": Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University>
Note the life time dedication to this one claim:that the reason architecture is an an art is because it too makes metaphors. It is hoped that this is of assistance to scholars, educators and students.
It also explains our experience in the world.Best wishes!
1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture
4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on Academia.edu since 2008
5. "The Metametaphor of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997
6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993
7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994
8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994
9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.
10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995
11."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995
12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland
13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993
14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne
15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010
16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197
17. "Metaphors and Architecture." ArchNet.org. October, 2009.at MIT
18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”; University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture.
19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section
20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten; http://reconstruction.eserver.org/;
21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j2632623064r5ljk/ Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103.
22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010)
23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87.
24. “The soverign built metaphor”: monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011 25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”:The Book; published: Feb 2012 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK