AuthorsDen.com   Join (Free!) | Login  

     Popular! Books, Stories, Articles, Poetry
   Services MarketPlace (Free to post!)
Where Authors and Readers come together!

SIGNED BOOKS    AUTHORS    eBOOKS new!     BOOKS    STORIES    ARTICLES    POETRY    BLOGS    NEWS    EVENTS    VIDEOS    GOLD    SUCCESS    TESTIMONIALS

Featured Authors:  Sonny Hudson, iA.J. Mahari, iJohn DeDakis, iLinda Frank, iJeanne Miller, iBetty Jo Tucker, iDominic Caruso, i

  Home > Philosophy > Articles Popular: Books, Stories, Articles, Poetry     

Barie Fez-Barringten

· Become a Fan
· Contact me
· Success story
· Books
· Articles
· Poetry
· Stories
· Blog
· 81 Titles
· 7 Reviews
· Save to My Library
· Share with Friends!
·
Member Since: Mar, 2006

Barie Fez-Barringten, click here to update your pages on AuthorsDen.


   Recent articles by
Barie Fez-Barringten

Metaphors, architecture and music
Relations between metaphors, creative thinking and 3D structures ©
The Six Principles of Art’s & Architecture’s Technical and Conceptual M
Architecture is an art because, as art, it too, makes metaphors
Linguistic, psychological, and cognitive sciences:architecture:metaphors
Metaphoric axioms for micro disciplinary architecture
Metaphor issues of architecture is art stasis
Metaphor cognition architecture axioms
Communication, metaphor & architecture ©
Anomie
Earthday
Interior Architecture/ Interior Design
           >> View all

Aesthetics, metaphors and architecture
By Barie Fez-Barringten   
Rated "G" by the Author.
Last edited: Thursday, September 27, 2012
Posted: Saturday, August 04, 2012

Share    Print   Save    Become a Fan

      View this Article

While aesthetics is a guiding principle in matters of artistic beauty and taste, metaphor is the warrant to taste and is used to form works of art and architecture. Aesthetics is also reasoning matters having to do with understanding perceptions. There fore it is appropriate to consider the aesthetic nature of architecture and metaphors.
William Wilson said that "a generous Age of Aquarius aesthetic that said that everything was art” It was during this time that we proposed that architecture is an art because it too makes metaphors and held the lecture series at Yale University. Most definitions of aesthetics concern the appreciation of beauty or good taste including the basis for making such judgments. Without a theory of metaphors these judgments mostly deal with probability and are inductive or deductive, deductive when depending on accepted premises which is the commonplace of the metaphor or inductive using logical induction. Inductive reasoning is inductive inference from the observed to the unobserved. It was given its classic formulation by David Hume, who noted that such inferences typically rely on the assumption that the future will resemble the past, or on the assumption that events of a certain type are necessarily connected, via a relation of causation, to events of another type.

Aesthetics, metaphors and architecture

Aesthetic principles of metaphor, art and architecture

By Barie Fez-Barringten

www.bariefez-barringten.com

Emails welcomed: bariefezbarringtetn.gmail.com

 Abstract:

                     While aesthetics is a guiding principle in matters of artistic beauty and taste, metaphor is the warrant to taste and is used to form works of art and architecture. Aesthetics is also reasoning matters having to do with understanding perceptions. There fore it is appropriate to consider the aesthetic nature of architecture and metaphors. William Wilson said that "a generous Age of Aquarius aesthetic that said that everything was art” It was during this time that we proposed that architecture is an art because it too makes metaphors and held the lecture series at Yale University. Most definitions of aesthetics concern the appreciation of beauty or good taste including the basis for making such judgments.

                   Without a theory of metaphors these judgments mostly deal with probability and are inductive or deductive, deductive when depending on accepted premises which is the commonplace of the metaphor or inductive using logical induction. Inductive reasoning is inductive inference from the observed to the unobserved. It was given its classic formulation by David Hume, who noted that such inferences typically rely on the assumption that the future will resemble the past, or on the assumption that events of a certain type are necessarily connected, via a relation of causation, to events of another type. Early monographs justifying architecture as the making of metaphors were steeped in deductive reasoning since we could not find new information pertaining to metaphors.

                       Many of my monographs included analyzing and explaining the syllogism: • Art [F] is the making of metaphors • Architecture is an art[F] • Therefore architecture is the making of metaphors.

                   Till now we did nothing to reason why art [F] is neither the making of metaphors nor why architecture is an art. Since 1967 I proceeded to analyze the presumptions and find its many applications. This new information in Metaphor and Thought by Andrew Ortony first published in 1979, provides evidence to support inductive reasoning and to this end each axiom is its own warrant to the inferences of the above syllogism and the answer to questions of why metaphor is the stasis to any of the syllogism’s claims and implications.

                      In argumentation [A] it is noted that in induction there is no new information added. In both methods the metaphor is at their root and as such the basis of aesthetics and as such essential to understand the stasis to what makes all arts the making of metaphors and how that Wilson’s statement is true for everything as most are metaphorical s as well. The matter then is one of standards, social rightness and the ability any one or another work has an explanation of its form. Architecture as the making of metaphors not only is the stasis to why architecture is art but also explains the formation of architectural aesthetic vocabulary.

                        The below is predominantly developed from a study of “Metaphors and Thought” by Andrew Ortony, [1] and, is in addition to over forty years of my work about “architecture as the making of metaphors. It is my hope that this monograph will introduce to aesthetics an architectural vocabulary to further the appreciation of works of architecture. Key Words: metaphor, architecture, aesthetics, parte, generative metaphor, carrying –over, top-down, renaissance, reasoning, concept, conduit metaphor, dead metaphor, conduit, novel images, image metaphors, abstract concepts, perform abstract reasoning, conceptual system, onomatopeics metaphors, mapping, invariance principle, emphatics, surrogates, micro, macro, direct, indirect, deductive, inductive, appreciation, commonplace reasoning, prototype theory, gestalt, inexpressibility thesis, vividness thesis, mnemonic, art [F]

Axioms: 16,343 words

Axioms (shown in Roman numerals) are self-evident principles that I have derived out of Ortony’s Metaphor and Thought[1.0] and accept as true without proof as the basis for future arguments; a postulates or inferences including their warrants (which I have footnoted as 1._._ throughout).These axioms are in themselves clarification, enlightenment, and illumination removing ambiguity where the derivative reference (Ortony) has many applications. Hopefully, these can be starting points from which other statements can be logically derived. Unlike theorems, axioms cannot be derived by principles of deduction as I wrote: "The metametaphor theorem" published by Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University. The below axioms define properties for the domain of a specific theory which evolved out of the stasis defending architecture as an art and in that sense, a "postulate "and "assumption" . Thusly, I presume to axiomatize a system of knowledge to show that these claims can be derived from a small, well-understood set of sentences (the axioms). “Universality, Global uniqueness, Sameness, Identity, and Identity abuse” are just some of the axioms of web architecture. Francis Hsu of Rutgers writes that “Software Architecture Axioms is a worthy goal. First, let's be clear that software axioms are not necessarily mathematical in nature”. Furthermore, in his book titled “The Book of Architecture Axioms” Gavin Terrill wrote: “Don't put your resume ahead of the requirements Simplify essential complexity; diminish accidental complexity; You're negotiating more often than you think ;It's never too early to think about performance and resiliency testing; Fight repetition; Don't Control, but Observe and Architect as Janitor”. In “Axiomatic design in the customizing home building industry published by Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management; 2002;vol 9; issue 4;page 318-324 Kurt Psilander wrote that “the developer would find a tool very useful that systematically and reliably analyses customer taste in terms of functional requirements (FRs).

                               Such a tool increases the reliability of the procedure the entrepreneur applies to chisel out a concrete project description based on a vision of the tastes of a specific group of customers. It also ensures that future agents do not distort the developer's specified FRs when design parameters are selected for the realization of the project. Axiomatic design is one method to support such a procedure. This tool was developed for the manufacturing industry but is applied here in the housing sector. Some hypothetical examples are presented”. Aside from building-architect’s axioms directing that “form follows function”; follow manufacturers requirements and local codes and ordinances, AIA standards for professional practice architectural axioms are few and far between.

                     1. Introduction: Arnold Berlant’s writes that: “Sense perception lies at the etymological (history of words) core of aesthetics (Gr. aesthesis, perception by the senses), and is central to aesthetic theory, aesthetic experience, and their applications. Berlant finds in the aesthetic a source, a sign, and a standard of human value”. It is this human value which is one leg of the metaphor and the very basis for the view that metaphor is the foundation for both art, architecture and aesthetics, and why I have spent over forty years researching the stasis to architecture being an art (because it too makes metaphors) it can also be shown that this same stasis is the commonplace to the works of aesthetic thought and investigation. . This coincidence (between aesthetics and art) confirms the intrinsic nature of this study of epistemology of architecture and aesthetics. The metaphoric evidence I believe will prove both useful to the creation, teaching and valuation of works of art as well as their architectural off-spring. In fact metaphor is the driving parte for most creative arts and architectural works. Some contemporary aesthetic theory differs with how best to define the term “art”, What should we judge when we judge art?, What should art be like?, The value of art, things of value which define humanity itself; contrasted to Raymond Williams who argues that there is no unique aesthetic object but a continuum of cultural forms from ordinary speech to experiences that are signaled as art by a frame, institution or special event. Conversations about aesthetics, metaphors and architecture reassess current and traditional issues by providing a scientific analysis for the way metaphors work in architecture. The commonality of all arts is that they express thought in terms of their peculiar craft and thus they (all arts) are technically metaphoric, metaphors because they transfer, carry-over and express one thing (some idea) in terms of another(the craft). {Parenthetically, there is no doubt that craft itself derives from ideas and concepts and within each is a sub-metaphor}. The sculptor who finds the figure as he malls the block is where the craft and the material inform the artist. The splashes of paint to canvas by Jackson Pollack even prevented any slow and deliberate cognition until the process was complete. Mies van der Rohe belittles his forms by simply ascribing his end result to being faithful to the materials and their properties. While all art is not expressed as a linguistic metaphor all arts are metaphoric. Likewise, if architecture is the making of metaphors what are the linguistic, psychological, and cognition science’s commonalities between architecture and metaphors? This monograph is linguistic analogy transferring from linguistic, psychological and cognitive fields to art and architecture what has been scientifically studied.

                           This is the “stasis” (the state of equilibrium {equipoise} or inactivity caused by opposing equal forces) of the controversy of architecture being an art; that if architecture behaves, acts, looks and works like art than it too must be an art. Why? Because it, too, makes metaphors, and those metaphors are varied in depth, kind, scope and context. It is the stasis because it is where art and architecture meet. The metaphor is the conceptual focal point. While many claim that the architect is the “techne” artist being a crafts man point has been conceptual and so useful as to bridge, carry-over and provide both artist and architect a common authority over the making of the built environment. As stasis, “architecture as the making of metaphors” enables the center of the dispute to be argued with common purpose. So this is a stasis in definition which concedes conjecture. While there may be other concepts justifying the relationship between art and architecture the metaphor is the stasis, common ground and apparent commonality. It not only is apparent but with wide and broad applications to a variety of arts and architectural definitions, practices and contexts. There may have been a time when the architect was the “master builder” and the lead craftsman but for most that is only true by his skill in drawing, design and specifying and not his skill as a master carpenter. Before solidifying our hypothesis about architecture and metaphors we both compared architecture to the art of sculpture reflecting my wife Christina’s work as a sculptress and my work as an architect and designer. It soon became apparent that while we could easily agree that buildings were “sculptural”,” colorful”,” lyrical”, “graceful”, ”rhythmic” etc. these were illusive and neither a field, base, or a true commonality to all the arts, including sculpture and architecture; so what was it? The commonality of all arts is that they technically express something in terms of their peculiar craft and thus they are metaphoric.

                       However technically metaphoric, how does architecture conceptually make metaphors and is there an influence between the technical and the conceptual architectural metaphor? “If the walls could only speak”; they do! Are you listening? When kingdoms created dynasty’s iconic buildings the architect and artisans took their ques from the reigning monarch. In our modern democratic pluralistic society the free reign of ideas and opinions as to contexts and their meanings are diverse. Not only is my childhood quest relevant but the essence of the responsibility of today’s architects who not only reasons the technical but individually reasons the conceptual. It is to the architect that society turns to be informed about the shape and form of the context in which life will be played. With this charge the need to know that we know and do by reasoning what science verifies by the scientific method to know that we know about the buildings, parks, and places we set into the environment. It is a public and private charge included in the contract for professional services but unspoken as professional life’s experience; to prove the relevant, meaningful and beneficial metaphors that edify encourage and equip society as well as provide for its’ health, safety and welfare.

So it is critical to realize, control and accept as commonplace that the role of the architect is to do much more than build but build masterfully. In 1967, during the series of colloquia [2] at Yale on art, Irving Kriesberg [3] had spoken about the characteristics of painting (art) as a metaphor. It seemed at once that this observation was applicable to architecture (since scholars have long proclaimed that architecture was an art) and to the design of occupiable forms. An appeal to Paul Weiss drew from him the suggestion that we turn to English language and literature in order to develop a comprehensive, specific, and therefore usable definition of metaphor. But it soon became evident that the term was being defined through examples without explaining the phenomenon of the metaphor; for our purposes it would be essential to have evidence of the practical utility of the idea embodies in the metaphor as well as obvious physical examples. However, since then, in 1977, a group of leading philosophers, psychologist, linguists, and educators gathered at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to participate in a multi disciplinary conference on metaphor and thought which was attended by nearly a thousand people. Our symposium at Yale was had a smaller attended and our proceedings were transcribed and later in 1971 partially published in Main Currents in Modern Thought.[4] 1979 research has been completed and documents in Andrew Ortony’s compendium book on metaphor and thought to advance this metaphoric comparison.

                            With all the controversy around "knowing"; how do we know we know and the inaccuracy of language and dubious nature of scientific conclusions I have written over fifteen monographs about “architecture as the making of metaphors” This is the first with the sciences of linguistic, psychology and cognition definitions of the metaphor and there fore a set of third party facts by which to base our comparison. It was my hope that these commonalities provided substantive reasons to allow the metaphor linking architecture to metaphors as my theorem (stasis): "architecture is the making of metaphors”. “If art is the making of metaphors and architecture is an art then it too must make metaphors. But until now aside form this formal logic we have not shown the informal logic, argument and evidence of this proposition. The below are excerpts form my monograph of paradigms and axioms about architecture based on Metaphor and Thought. In each of the below cases I have fist paraphrased the scientist's conclusions based on a notable commonality to architecture where space allowed described an architectural process or product in the terms of each finding. Out these comparisons there came topoi [5] (A traditional theme or motif; a literary convention.) which we can use to describe architecture and aesthetics, all below sections and paragraphs reference Metaphor and Thought by A. Ortony. [1] 2. Relevance:

                        Whether by formal or informal reasoning, whether by deductive or inductive reasoning it is necessary to know that aesthetics’ fundamental basis for linking a specific case to general referent is, as art, bridging the craft to the craftsman, the concept to the craft and the observation to a model. . While in earlier monographs I have dealt with the specifics of these relationships this monograph presents the ways metaphors work and by induction support claims. The study shows that metaphors are not all the same and work in different ways. These different ways are the evidence for the inferences to the claims and resolution significant to aesthetics, art, and architecture; namely that artist, art critiques, philosophers, architects have an awareness of many the shapes and forms of metaphors and their possible inclusion in what can be judged and included. Each of the below syllogisms is meant to provide some of the early reasoning supporting our original research. a. Art is the making of metaphors b. Architecture is an art c Architecture is an art A. Art transfers one to another B. Metaphor transfers C. Art is a metaphor I.

                      Aesthetics referents taste II. Taste is a metaphor III. Aesthetics is a metaphor aa. Aesthetics is a metaphor bb. Architecture is a metaphor cc. Architecture is aesthetics Aesthetics mainstay: ’beauty is in the eye of the beholder’ where the beholder is the referent of the metaphor and the necessary completion of the judgment. While there can be an aesthetic experience, without such a referent it’s understating and taste would be irrelevant. With two referents, the social norm and the specific case, the experience and taste is, too, a metaphor. As metaphor carries-over, transfers and talks about one thing in terms of another; taste is at the heart of determining whether a work is art, its value, a work of architecture, etc. If there is no bridge then the work is another kind of metaphor, perhaps a technical metaphor linked to the craft of the art and if there is no bridge, determining how close or far from the ideal would be capricious. Yet one can describe ones feelings involving the senses.

                              Having studied behavioral psychology many of my earlier design projects were predicated on the affects of space, volumes, planes and shapes on the five senses. I admired and under-studied with architect, Frederick Kiesler. Yet these relationships between aesthetics and metaphor, while useful do not wholly explain the aesthetic and sensual experience of art or architecture. It only assumes these experiences as a referent to aesthetic judgment and the making of metaphors. Included in the below 5 sections are the 73 axioms extracted from the Ortony’s Metaphor and Thought and my monographs which are possible referents to any reasoned aesthetic consideration as the warrant to an inference or the evidence of a specific claim . I have underlined the axioms for clarity. For example this work is a work of art because it is a generative metaphor. To reduce this size of this monograph I have deleted so many of the architectural examples as these might be found to be distracting from the aesthetic reasoning. The combination of all this monograph’s axioms suggest inclusion rather exclusion of will, desire and appetite into the consideration of the metaphor as all art, as all architecture is, for all, to create, use, own and enjoy. While contemporary aesthetics may focus on perception by means of the senses, cognitive capacity in creation and perception informs conceptual metaphors and the two affect any one aesthetic experience, subject and individual. Transferring from previous experience is not always experiential but cognitive, where the only sense involved is the initial referent, a referent to a transfer where one talks in terms of anther to make the strange familiar and find a commonality to both. 3. Metaphor and Representation [1] this section presupposes that metaphors are a linguistic phenomenon and that metaphors are somewhat “deviant” and need to be explained in terms of normal or literal uses of language, and that their main function is to provide an alternative linguistic mechanism for expressing ideas-a communicative function [1]. In his paintbrush as pump discussion as a metaphor Schon claims that by attaching to the paintbrush the way of a pump the researchers were able to better improve the design of the paintbrush as an instrument which pumps paint on the surface. By describing painting in an unfamiliar way they were able to make dominant what was already somewhat known. They then saw the brush as a pump. Before then they seemed to be different things now they were the same. To arrive at this conclusion they had to observe the working of the brush and make the observation and then apply it to the mechanism. The paintbrush was now seen as a pump and the act of painting, pumping. Schon refers to this a generative metaphor. [6] The generative metaphor is the name for a process of symptoms of a particular kind of seeing-as, the “meta-pherein” or “carrying –over” of frames or perspectives from one domain of experience to another. This process he calls generative which many years earlier WJ Gordon called the Metaphoric Way of Knowing [7] and Paul Weiss [8] called “associations”.

                      In this sense both in interior design and architecture after assimilating the program the very first step in the design process is to develop a “parte’ (An ex parte presentation is a communication directed to the merits or outcome of a proceeding …it’s the resolution of the argument consisting of claims, inferences, evidence and warrants to the inference). It is a “top-down” [6] approach later followed by designs which meet the parte. The parte may follow the design process and be presented to sell the product. Commercial retail shops maximize both visual and physical access to their merchandise by the use of glass and positioning entrances convenient to potential shoppers’ paths of travel. Attached or detached the idea of the shop as a flickering flame and welcoming transformed shops prior image as formidable container into which one ventured for surprise and possible revelation. With this is in mind designers of malls extend this accessibility to nodes on highways to be close to their prime markets.

                           Commercial retail is now perceived as an attractive recreational experience and as such provides shoppers with a secondary perception of the metaphor; shoppers now “carry-over” from play, rest and relaxation to fulfilling their needs and necessities. On the other hand a dead metaphor is one which really does not contain any fresh metaphor insofar as it does not really “get thoughts across”; “language seems rather to help one person to construct out of his own stock of mental stuff something like a replica, or copy, of someone’s else’s thoughts”. [9] The landscape is replete with an infinite number of inane replicas which render readers dull, passive and disinterested (How many times will you read the same book?) Mass housing, commercial office buildings and highways are the main offenders leaving the owner designed and built residence, office, factory, fire station, pump house, as unique and delightful relief’s in an otherwise homogenized context.

The reader stops reading because it is the same as before. Not reading the copy yet seeing the copy and the collective of copies focuses rather on the collective as the metaphor as the overall project which also may be “dead”. In its time, Levittown’s uniqueness and the sub-structures sameness were its’ metaphor. It was alive and today still lives as new residents remodel upgrade and exhume their “dead” to become a “living” metaphor. Disregarding this, the architects of public housing created dead metaphors and blamed the lack of pride of ownership for their failure. In revitalization teams of revivalist have discovered there is more than turf and proprietorship. Peculiarization, personalization and authentication are required for a metaphor to live. In this is the art of making metaphors for the architect of public works. Defining the operation of metaphor Reddy says that “a conduit is a minor framework which overlooks words as containers and allows ideas and feelings to flow, unfettered and completely disembodied, into a kind of ambient space between human heads. There are also individual pipes which allow mental content to escape into, or enter from, this ambient space. Thoughts and feelings are reified into an external “idea space” and where thoughts and feelings are reified in this external space, so that they exist independent of any need for living human beings to think or feel them”. This most closely resembles works of architecture and what goes inside and outside works. “Somewhere we are peripherally aware that words do no really have insides (“it is quit foreign to common sense to think of words as having “insides” ……………major version of the metaphoric which thoughts and emotions are always contained in something”) That conduit [9] is the dominant theme that unites all the Tyrolean villages. Interior decoration in the Bronx and Brooklyn in the middle of the twentieth century was dominated by wall to wall drapes, cornices, valences, upholstered furniture covered with slip covers, ketch and bric-a-brac figures and “charkas” known affectionately as “Bronx Renaissance”. The conduit that connected these outcomes were a system of city-wide gift stores, national gift market, central fabric suppliers and workshops and the heroic drapery hangers (of which I was one) completed their work. Conduit is the parte and design system from which choices in structure, finishes, colors, textures, etc. follow. A dead metaphor [9] is one which really does not contain any fresh metaphor insofar as it does not really “get thoughts across”; “language seems rather to help one person to construct out of his own stock of mental stuff something like a replica, or copy, of someone’s else’s thoughts”. The landscape is replete with an infinite number of inane replicas which render readers dull, passive and disinterested (How many times will you read the same book?) Mass housing, commercial office buildings and highways are the main offenders leaving the owner designed and built residence, office, factory, fire station, pump house, as unique and delightful relief’s in an otherwise homogenized context. The reader stops reading because it is the same as before. Not reading the copy yet seeing the copy and the collective of copies focuses rather on the collective as the metaphor as the overall project which also may be “dead” (hence, dead metaphor). In its time, Levittown’s uniqueness and the sub-structures sameness were its’ metaphor. It was alive and today still lives as new residents remodel upgrade and exhume their “dead” to become a “living” metaphor. Disregarding this, the architects of public housing created dead metaphors and blamed the lack of pride of ownership for their failure. Revitalization teams of revivalist have discovered there is more than turf and proprietorship, peculiarization, personalization and authentication are required for a metaphor to live. In this is the art of making metaphors for the architect of public works. In this is the aesthetic of public works and culturally pervasive urban design. Defining the operation of metaphor Reddy says that “a conduit is a minor framework which overlooks words as containers and allows ideas and feelings to flow, unfettered and completely disembodied, into a kind of ambient space between human heads. There are also individual pipes which allow mental content to escape into, or enter from, this ambient space. Thoughts and feelings are reified into an external 1.2.3 “idea space” and where thoughts and feelings are reified in this external space, so that they exist independent of any need for living human beings to think or feel them”. This most closely resembles works of architecture and what goes inside and outside works. “Somewhere we are peripherally aware that words do no really have insides (“it is quit foreign to common sense to think of words as having “insides” ……………major version of the metaphoric which thoughts and emotions are always contained in something”) “It's a strange thought, that culture is a product of man-made, unnatural things, that instead of culture shaping the architecture, it is the architecture (the environment) that shapes the culture. I would guess it makes sense after some x amount of years....maybe its in cycles: At first, culture creates the architecture, x years pass by, and then the architecture-environment modifies the culture. Then new modified culture creates new architecture, etc. [10] (2): But then if we only build steel, glass structures, wouldn't we suffer from the glass metropolis in the future, when another form or material is introduced to replace steel, concrete and glass?” [10] The affect of the metaphor on other metaphors with all its links and consequences is manifest in the conduit which leads to one after the other and a continuation of the first. An example of novel images and image metaphors is Andre Breton’s “My wife……whose waist is an hourglass” explains…..”By mapping the structure of one domain onto the structure of another”, [11] “This is a superimposition of the image of an hour glass onto the image of a woman’s waist by virtue of their common shape. As before the metaphor is conceptual; it is not the works themselves, but the metal images. Here, we have the mental image of an hour glass and of a woman and we map the middle of the hourglass into the waist of the woman. The words are prompts for us to map from one conventional image to another”. Lakoff concludes that “ all metaphors are invariant with respect to their cognitive topology, that is, each metaphorical mapping preserves image-schema structure:” Likewise when we look at the geometrical formal parts of an architectural metaphor we note those common elements where fit, coupling and joints occur. We remember that which exemplified the analogous match. [11] This observation of the metaphor finds that the commonality, commonplace and similarity are the chief focus of the metaphor. As Frank Lloyd Wright designed his Prairie architecture with dominant horizontal axis thrust to his structure as common to the horizontal axis of the land upon which the building sits. Thus the two horizontal axes, the land and then the building were wed by their commonality of horizontality. According to Lakoff plausible accounts rather than scientific results is why we have conventional metaphors and why conceptual systems contain one set of metaphorical mappings than another. An architectural work establishes its own vocabulary which once comprehended become the way in which we experience the work, finding its discrepancies and fits and seeking the first and all the other similar elements. We do judge the work as to have Consistency, integrity and aesthetics. Buildings which do not have these characteristics do not work as metaphors. [11] The relevance of studying architecture as the making of metaphors is to provide practitioners, owners, and mainly those that shape the built environment that they have a somber and serious responsibility to fill our world with meaning and significance, That what they do matters as in this first of Layoff’s results (Please note the application of Layoff’s vocabulary, definitions and descriptions related to linguistics metaphorically applied to architecture). Metaphor is the main mechanism through which we comprehend abstract concepts and perform abstract reasoning. For example, as this is so for linguistics (spoken or written), then I infer that it must be true for non-linguistics, and I give as evidence the built habitats and their architectural antecedents, being as how what is built is first thought and conceived separately from building as thinking and conceiving is separate from the outward expression, whether it is one or thousands, public cultures is influenced, bound and authenticated by its’ metaphors. Not withstanding “idolatry”, the metaphors are the contexts of life’s dramas. As our physical bodies are read by our neighbors, finding evidence for inferences about social, political and philosophical claims about our culture and its place in the universe is a metaphorical act. Subject matter, from the most mundane to the most abstruse scientific theories, can only be comprehended via metaphor. [11] Much subject matter, from the most mundane to the most abstruse scientific theories, can only be comprehended via metaphor where metaphor is fundamentally conceptual, not linguistic, in nature [11]. After many years living in Saudi Arabia and Europe and away from Brooklyn I visited Park Slope. I saw the stoops ascending to their second floors, the carved wood and glass doors, the iron grilles, the four story walls, the cementous surrounded and conventionally pained widows but what I saw was only what I described. I did not recognize what it was; it was all unfamiliar like a cardboard stage setting. I did not have a link to their context nor the scenarios of usage and the complex culture they represented. I neither owned nor personalized what I was seeing. All of this came to me without language but a feeling of anomie for what I was seeing and me in their presence, years later I enthusiastically escorted my Saudi colleagues thorough Washington, DC’s Georgetown showing them the immaculately maintained townhouses. I was full of joy, perceptually excited but my colleagues laughed and were totally disinterested. These were not their metaphors and they could hardly wait to leave the area to find a good Persian restaurant to have dinner. They, like my self years before did not see what I saw and more relevantly did not “get-the-concept”. Both of the above anti-metaphor cases were conceptualized without words as would be positive cases of metaphor. Aesthetics must be familiar to be perceived; metaphors make the strange familiar. [7].  

Web Site: Aesthetics, metaphors and architecture



Want to review or comment on this article?
Click here to login!


Need a FREE Reader Membership?
Click here for your Membership!



Books by
Barie Fez-Barringten



Second Coming

more..




Twenty Years in Saudi Arabia (Introduction)





Holy Spirit and I by Christina Fez-Barringten

Buy Options
Barnes & Noble, more..




Where Christ is forbidden

Barnes & Noble, more..




Legend

Buy Options
Amazon, more..




Gibe

Buy Options
Amazon, more..




Architecture:the making of metaphors

Buy Options
Amazon, Barnes & Noble, more..






Terrorism, Ethics, and Modern Society by Lawrance Lux

A handbook for discussion of the violation of Ethics, by the use of Terrorism; examining the development of the anti-social ideology behind Terrorism. ..  
Featured BookAds by Silver
Gold and Platinum Members


Tuchy's Law--- wisdom from those that cross my path by Tuchy (Carl) Palmieri

Tuchy’s law is a lifetime collection of the most impactful words of wisdom that came to Tuchy Palmieri, over the years, and under all circumstances. This unique collection i..  
Featured BookAds by Silver
Gold and Platinum Members

Authors alphabetically: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Featured Authors | New to AuthorsDen? | Add AuthorsDen to your Site
Share AD with your friends | Need Help? | About us


Problem with this page?   Report it to AuthorsDen
© AuthorsDen, Inc. All rights reserved.