Metaphoric phenomena of music and architecture
By Barie Fez-Barringten
6,378 words on 26 double spaced pages
What role does the general public have in metaphors? The answer lies in the comprehensive application of the metaphor to the wider field of all the arts, and specifically architecture and music. Recalling that much has already been written about the relationships and analogies between the two this work explores neither the work nor architecture but their part of a metaphoric holism whereby he or she (user) completes a metaphor interacting with more value than the mere sum of elementary components. The commonalities and differences of music and architecture highlight the commonality of composer, performers, audience and users. The architect is likened to the composer and their commitment to project their experience to the user/audience through builders and performers into the work.
This monograph refers to the author's notes from a lecture series at Yale University: Architecture the making of metaphors involving, amongst others, Paul Weiss and William J. Gordon. Additionally, this work recalls Daniel MacGalvray's research from his article in the proper Education of Musicians and Architects". The discussion about the kind of effort expended to appreciate music and architecture refers to George Dodds On the place of Architectural speculation.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
April 22, 1993, on the evening of Earth Day's twenty-third anniversary my wife and I attended a concert of The Clementi Ensemble in a pre-engineered metal building" in the Dhahran Academy in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. But my mind was not on the concert, as such, but the context and the circumstances of what we all expected to experience from these four fine musicians. We also compared this experience to when we helped John McConnell and UThant stage" in central park (that day the United Nations declared Earth Day a world legal holiday); and, the year before the Mayor of New York in Union Square. Indeed, the evening was replete with making leaps back into history to seemingly unrelated events. Even the musical program of Schubert, Beethoven, Mozart and Dvorak conjured "barocco" visions of courtly recitals of other periods and places. We also noticed the many languages and dresses of the audience and yet we were all attending this one concert.
It then occurred to me that we were all participating in a metaphoric event which had everything to do with architecture. Perhaps this event and our role as an audience and participants in this metaphor could shed light on the user’s role in works of architecture. Because, that night we were audience, participants and users. The persons of the metaphor So much have already been written about the relationship between music and architecture. Particularly about music's design components and overall modes and meanings. But this night I realized that the audience to this concert was not unlike a building’s. We both had a relationship to a Context: weaving together of words, connections; coherence; the interrelated conditions in which something exists. We were a group of listeners, spectators and preceptors; reading, viewing and listening in public.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
We were amongst those to whom things were made audible by the originator, designer, assembler and composer of the works. Before playing each piece one of the musicians would remind us to remember the composer, his intentions about the work and his life in relation to the work. It occurred to me that I had not read anything about metaphor's relationship to architecture. Particularly about their performance; yet it was the performance in which we all were involved. Having already been to other recitals, in addition to listening to the sound of the music one also watches the communication between players. It is as though one is watching a "musical conversation". Recitals seem to have that quality. Each plays the libretto composed to create interactions between players. But they add so much more by the movement of their body, head and eyes. Their face expresses agreement and satisfaction about the timing, quality and acoustics of what they hear and see. We are watching them make a metaphor between themselves and the composer, the audience, and all using the years of skill with their instruments. This evening’s instruments were the violin, cello, viola and piano. I noticed the way in which each of the players positioned themselves on their chairs in relationship to each other, the stage and the audience.
They could do little about the theatre or the metal building except ask that only during the performance the air-conditioning be shut off because of its' noise. All musicians, dancers and actors have specific routines, responses and actions which as letters in a word, words in sentence, etc, string together to complete the intended metaphor. Metaphors, Architecture & Music Originator to User I began to sketch and plot their positions which then led me to recall how attentive we were in selecting where we'd sit to watch the performance. We also noticed others who did the same. This was one of the components of how we, the audience, must participate in completing the making of the metaphor: the one originally intended by the composer and the theater's architect. I recalled the way in which we perceive buildings and the analogies between seat selection and positioning in buildings. When we enter restaurants and snack shops we look for views, proximity to fountain features, exits, entrances, etc.
When we sit in living rooms or lounges we try to find comfortable seats with views, position in space, location to perimeter, center, etc. In planning the layout of an existing apartment or house we care for locating each piece of furniture and functional item on the basis of our vistas, views, position, hierarchies and priorities. Our experience with each building type is generic with both interchangeable and unique considerations. We take responsibility for the control of what we are going to experience in any given situation depending on the length of time, importance, social standing or privacy of the situation. We may settle for one position on a subway ride but yet another in a bus with a view. One position in a concert yet another in a metal auditorium building Aside from our instincts for comfort and obvious mundane necessities we are also aware of yet another responsibility.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
We are completing metaphor intentions by the architect of the metaphor in which we find ourselves. We instinctively look to optimize our relationship to the architects and composer’s generic birth characteristic of the whole group and serves to control the projection of characteristics, specifying the structure, accommodating a particular function, or accommodating the function of other form generators: intentions and his design parameters. We are aware that we are the final players in a scenario devised well before our arrival. We are kind of actors or performers playing out the rationale of the place. This then was the link between music and architecture relevant to contemporary orientation; differences between music and architecture. Architecture and music are apparently different from one another. One is static and the other dynamic.
One is performed the other shelters. They are both experienced in different ways. Music is best experienced by being physically passive while architecture active. Music, as such is experienced by the ears, while architecture by the sense of vision, touch, smell and sound (acoustics). Particularly these days when we can appreciate music through electronic media; or the connoisseur by reading street music. The differences between architecture are vast: one is a while the other is an applied art. Indeed they both have a spiritual, sensual and unseen dimension but music will not shelter nor materially limit and bound space. The differences focused my attention beyond their dance music and, background music (Muzak), ballet, etc. are exceptions as are rooms where we sit lie, stand still etc. Metaphors, Architecture & Music Architecture's perceptions are in operations and perceptions in relation to operations while a connoisseur understands the details, technique or principles of music, architecture, painting, etc. and is competent to act as a critical judge as one who enjoys with discrimination and appreciation of the subtleties of our metaphors we are each the cognizer.
Paul Weiss says in his book “Nine basic arts" that music and architecture both limit and bound space. (But not materially: different technique, limiting and bounding) aesthetics and analogous artistic dimensions to the way they are completed metaphor we can better understand the commonalities and differences between origination, making and experience. All the sizes, heights, clearances and dimensions of rooms and corridors are contingent upon people and the quantity of people a facility must accommodate. The Metaphor of music and architecture Metaphor is a literary term which means "carrying-over"; it associates meanings, emotions, things, times and places which otherwise would not have been related. Metametaphorically times and places (or any essence thereof) known to have a preferential, specific or localized use in one context are explicitly employed in another.
One familiar and one strange term are usually composed into a single form where one term normally used in one context is brought over into another with the object of illuminating; making more evident © something in the second domain which otherwise remains obscure. The best of metaphors allow us to express two truths at the same time about two times, the past and future; the past can illuminate the future or the future the past. They are interactive. Both ideas converge on the idea of some activity, vision, or idea.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
The metaphor points beyond each of its members to the reality then diversity express, articulating a power common to both, telling us that both have an intrinsic nature. “Complete; bring into a perfect stage; execute fully; having all the necessary parts” says: Paul Weiss in “The metaphorical processes published by Main currents in modern thought, Sept Oct. 1971. A part may be more comprehensive; transcending; change or transformation used with the metaphor to designate its new but related function so as to deal critically with the original concept of the metaphor. Functional performance is a quality that depends and varies with another: as elements of a metaphor. Music and architecture are experienced in the same way.
They are both composed through the experience of another person and in his context. The strange context and other person's experience are encapsulated in a composition, design, assemblage, or some other work of applied art for us to experience in our context in the future. That future is the present where we, in our context, experience the original composition. The two times, past and future contexts: the composers and ours converge on the work. We perceive the work in the present stimulated by signals. These signals in music are in the form of volume, syncopations, crescendos, tones, notes etc. In architecture it is materials, structures, textures, light, shadow etc. Both music and architecture can create scale, harmony, space, tension, compression, vision, illusions, etc. Music and architecture both are joined together by metaphoric works; sorted through the signals in the work the place, events, and history of the origins of the work. We compare them with our place, time and context. We see commonalities and differences: it is a metaphoric experience. Metaphors, Architecture & Music This explains why concert hall architects try to create the kind of visual and acoustical context compatible to the function of the performers and the audience. In doing so he recreates the vision of the composer and a context common to composer, performer and audience, signal, sign, an act, event, or sound that has been agreed on as the occasion of concerted action, something that incites to action.
A meaningful linguistic, musical or architectural form, it is distinctive and conspicuous. Music and architecture's commonality Paul Weiss in "Nine Basic Arts” classifies music with architecture as arts that enclose a created dimension. That dimension may be space, time or becoming. "Just as the composer must be familiar with conducting and performing, the designer must know the skill's of the builder and the craftsperson". Creative composers, skilled conductors, and talented performers are joined by their original study of a theoretical and historical common body of musical knowledge that binds them together as musicians. There is the shared universally accepted musical language. "The work of musicians long dead” is familiar and immediately accessible, not only to musicians, but through musicians to the general public as well".
Even the audiences most of whom may lack a formal music education bring to the concert a certain familiarity with at least an interest in music. They read the metaphor through the familiar signals learned in other contexts. Musicians, after all, move and breathe and their instruments imitate nature. Metaphors, Architecture & Music It is in the harmony of these sounds in some systems that musicians and audience appreciate the scale, dimension and visions of the composition. Both architect and composer begin with a concept, an idea of involved in a creative act, which may then be written down using an accepted notation system. But where is the composer or the audience in this metaphor. To find him or her we must explore the metaphor which links the two arts. Why are they both an art and how are they significant and relevant to our experience as natural human beings? The literary metaphor says MacGilvray, D.F., “The proper education of musicians and architects (JAE, Nov. 92). About one thing in terms of another and makes the strange familiar. As it does it identifies our position in society and is the emblem of who we are. We are not the metaphor but our experience of it is as real as anything else we know. As we perceive it is our virtual reality. It contains our identity, signs and signals. Its' vocabulary, symbols and characters are symbiotic. The metaphor itself is symbiotic and our relationship to the metaphor is symbiosis. The metaphor is a vehicle change. It transforms and it is a transformer. It works internally between its' elements and upon us as we complete metaphor. It is completion that users and audience participate in the ultimate creation of any metaphor
Like music, architecture issues from the past a past which is multifaceted. There is first the past of the composer, the metaphor maker, and the architect of the metaphor, his or her background, training, experience and knowledge. There is also the whole history of music and architecture. For the musician as well as the architect both are brought up in the world of their art. Art is a skill acquired by experience, study and observation. It is a conscious use of that skill along with creative imagination in the production of the work. The metaphor is not only an idea but a composed and created idea over a period of time and experiences.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
Weiss, P. says “The metaphorical process architecture, musicians and an audience to a performance share common operations. They participate in a mimesis which reveals the original. Meaning is established in both simulacrum and lack of resemblance. Both the strange and the familiar can be read. Users, musicians and audiences do not imitate the composer's specific action but rather his creative process. The musicians as well as building’s users utilize techniques which enable this recreative process, musicians more so than users or audiences. But all share their faithfulness to the original composer; it is only the musician who has committed himself to techne" recreation in a consequent, responsible and accountable effort. He enters into a discipline of special signals, skill and craft. He can be more likened to architect's craftsmen and artisans who build from the architect's plans.
Both builders and musicians perform according to techniques and systems and in concert halls which transcend any one composer, place or country. It is the composer and architect who write for extant artisans who must use their known instruments, notes and language of music to reproduce the musical thought. The audience and users of the work of architecture both benefit from the performance of the artisans. The finished building, like the musical recording becomes the vehicle through which the metaphor is experienced. It is one of the common links between the composer and the audience. It is as a constant in the vision of the composer as his sheet music, the instruments and the musicians. It is not the live performance of the builders in process which users of architecture Dodds, G., "On the place of Architectural speculation" (Journal of Architectural Education, Nov. 92) "Techno" or technique is a method of accomplishing a desired aim, includes the architect's planted and endued signals. On the other hand the audience of music does enjoy the humanity of the way in which a musical metaphor is performed. Metaphors, Architecture & Music The users of architecture do however enjoy the quality of craftsmanship, faithfulness and fidelity to the architect's intentions. He or she perceives it not while it is being produced but after it is completed Architecture as frozen music Goethe referred to architecture as “petrified music ".
Both concepts refer to the difference between the perceptions of the craft. With musical rendition it is neither frozen nor petrified but dynamic and flowing. Users complete the Metaphor Completion of a metaphor implies that a metaphoric conception is complex and a system which includes all the dimensions in which it exists. This includes the of everything that satisfies the metaphor context, place, conditions, composer, vehicles, instruments, techniques, medias, frames, settings, scenarios, performers, audiences, preceptors, users, operators, makers, assemblers, artisans, craftsmen, etc. Any one or another kind of a metaphor ultimately is an admixture of a number of constants and variables that finally completes the metaphor. Every metaphor is never all together totally complete says MacGilvray, D.F., "The proper education of musicians and architects (JAE, Nov, 1992) A metaphor is rendered when it gives back, transport to another, restores and it imports to reproduce by artistic means. A metaphor translates; performs, and interprets. A metaphor is complete and brought to an end having all its necessary parts fully carried out. A Metametaphor is concluded and in a perfected state when it has all its parts and closed successfully. Metaphors, Architecture & Music A Locus can function and communicate but it will be different from one to another stage as it’s' dimensions are added. Such is the experience of musical works which are performed before different persons located in various places in a concert hall; audiences of different contexts and times and by musicians with the same type but different instruments.
The composition and design for music and architecture may be constant but are only part of the conception. It is the user who will ultimately perceive and experience the personalized ideas of the composer. Metaphors like music are composed, assembled, and conjured. Reified and created by technique from experiences with the elements of the metaphor the composer has experienced the metamorphosis of the elements. He has "seen" the commonalities, the differences and the essence common to both. In any case the building’s is a variable in the experience of the metaphor and depending on his choices, decisions, faith, discipline, conditioning, skill, commitment and language skills will he participate. But he is part of the metaphor. He will perceive and read what is composed, played, constructed and generally أreified. The metaphoric composition does not include him in it’s' character, vocabulary, form, style, meanings, definitions, derivatives, signs and symbols. Metaphor conditions the composition of the metaphor. A metaphor for one may be inappropriate for another. This is because the users vary. R.J. Kaufman said "we conjure up our own metaphors' for our own needs". When some thing abstract is reified to material or concrete thing it becomes a metaphor
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
In a synectic experience the use tests the work to prove it’s' claims. He employs the work by occupation, exercise or practice. The user seeks to benefit or profit by putting the work into service. He operates within the work and manipulates it to carry out a purpose. The user personalizes, enjoys and mindfully probes the work, seeking correspondence between him and the composer's intentions. For every move though space, at features, near limits and boundaries the user applies what he has learned in other contexts to achieve his purposes in the current work. The user is constantly comparing all previous experiences with the one he currently experiences. He compares all former cues, signs, and signals for elegance and correspondence. The metaphor interacts with our past and circumstances to modify the meaning of our lives. Irving Kriesberg said that painting was a metaphor. The arts all transform our natural lives, needs and necessities to the ethereal.
The metaphor lends significance to the mundane the ordinary. We know who we are, our value, status and rank in society by the metaphors in which we live, work and play. We seek a well orchestrated system of consistent metaphoric standards by which we wish others to judge us. We want to be known for our metaphor... The user of a metaphor is in the scope of the metaphor’s program. The user is an inherent part of metaphor without which the objects of the form have no meaning. Metaphors, Architecture & Music William J. Gordon identified synectics to bring forth together: a theory of problem stating and problem solution based on creative thinking that involves free use of metaphor and analogy in informal interchange within a carefully selected small group of individuals of diverse personality and areas of specialization. Elegance scientific precision, neatness and simplicity: select high grade or quality. *Correspondence is the agreement of things with one another; a particular similarity a relation between sets in which each member of one set is associated with one or more members of the other: mapping: function. *Quality of what kind: who: a peculiar and essential character: nature, and inherent feature; property: capacity; role; social status; rank. A distinguishing attribute; Meaning purport: the thing that is conveyed: intended; significant quality. *Gordon, W.J.J.," Synectics":
The metaphoric way of knowing *Fez-Barringten, B.:
Architecture, the making of Metaphorsؤ "
Notes from a Symposium: (Main currents in Modern Thought Sept. Oct. 1971).
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
The Past and Future
The concert hall, musicians, and particularly the music, composer and his history are on one side of the metaphor along with the past of their society, civilization and culture. Even today's music is, in part, a function of what we have gone through and of what the past has been. Music, architecture and the other arts relate the past to the present through the creative aspect of the dynamic metaphor . A work of art may bring the past forward directly, or it may distort or negate it, but it is always in usage, a manipulation, of what has gone before in terms of the present". Classic music, particularly operettas, operas and small recitals in some places are performed in the original theater where it was first played and with the performers wearing the clothes of the original period. Ethereal lacking material substance; intangible: marked by unusual delicacy and refinement... Mundane characterized by the practical, transitory and ordinary; earthly measure; a proportion between two sets of division, a distinctive relative extent.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music (1.1.) Weiss, P. The metaphorical processؤ
In these cases there is an attempt to literally recreate the context of the composer in order to share with the audience so that the audience and the composer would share a common context, and that the Metaphor experienced by the composer would be imparted to the audience through the artifacts common to both, present in both times, the past the future. Even the instruments will be the same ones used at the time. In the performance we saw in Dhahran for example the instrument was made in 1724 by Alexander Gagliano. This instrument itself drew our attention and indeed recalled whatever we know about the history of the composers. It was a way of recalling royal courts, regal pomp and pageantry, of the suffering experiences of the composers and of our own plights. Neither music nor architecture is produced without some awareness of the future. Particularly the plan of the work to be accomplished and the functions the work it is to perform. Is it to be a school, residence, restaurant, office building etc?
The quality of workmanship, availability of craftsmanship, and materials for architecture equate well to the discipline of musicians, their instruments and the system of sheet music reproduction, orchestration and distribution. The composer in the past must have considered all these needs of the future. Metaphors, Architecture & Music A future in which he participates through planning and foresight however, is closed to us and, therefore, we cannot perceive the reciprocal movement of the two way relationship of the metaphor. We cannot affect the past, it is gone forever. Metaphors at their best are reciprocal and therefore a metaphor composed today which (P. Weiss) "begins with the past cannot be a very good one".
However, classical music was the metaphorical process planned for the future for us to participate in its' metaphor, Its' composers acted on the future. What composers and architects devise today may condition the future; a future which is continually being modified by present action and therefore will not conform to our vision of it which is abstract and can only embrace the possible. Architects and composers who do not include the hearing range of an audience; the competence and skills of the musicians; the acoustics of the instruments; nor the proportions, functions and context of the users are doomed to obscurity. Their works are bound to be demolished, shelved or ignored, at best made into curiosities and symbolic of despotic ignorance. Metaphors conditioned by the user, considering his instincts to adapt, vary and change, interact with the future.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
Metaphor's value Musical forms in many societies have been added since the classics and with them the notion of the temporary, transient and obsolete. Further, the notion of works prepared for the highest of Roman citizen where each and all works established a recognized value and a standard of excellence. They were thought of as permanent with a life span into our time and even beyond; not only the materials, construction and structure but the ideals of excellence and perfection. The classics established systems, orders and laws of standards of universal and enduring validity. That is why classics are appreciated today as before. We not only tune into themes and idioms but are able to identify ourselves with their high standard of quality and human accomplishment. Attending such concerts one becomes part of a group ostensibly metaphor, but it is actually to participate in the metaphor. .
Participate by confirming and sharing the same, if not intended similar economic or social status. Enjoying the music alone in this sense becomes a culturing experience allowing ones self to be positively affected by the quality of the music. It is the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties. It is culturing by the enlightenment and excellence of taste acquired by intellectual and aesthetic training. Metaphors, Architecture & Music It is the mission of such metaphors to use their transformation change capabilities to transmit knowledge to succeeding generations. Classic metaphors which culture include the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends on audience and preceptor’s capacity for learning and receiving. The user must be receptive and somewhat like the musician or the audience: eager, zealous and motivated to vicariously enjoy the composer’s genius.
Works of architecture and their users are endued with this excellence and these standards. That is why they provide us with a measure of our accomplishments and relative position in society. Once known and understood it may be dialectically rejected, in this way metaphorsؤ dialectic tension between two interacting forces. "Strictly speaking, a metaphor involves the carrying over of material ordinarily employed in a rather well defined context into a wholly different ostensible plausible rather than demonstratively true or real: dialectical materialism development through the stages of thesis. Thesis a system of reasoning that juxtaposes (metaphor opposed or contradictory ideas) and usually seeks to resolve their conflict. Metaphors, Architecture & Music (Weiss, P), “The metaphorical process situation. If there is not initial separation between the two elements, there is no metaphor. The metaphor involves the intrusion not of neighbors but of aliens. It brings together what seems to be radically different in nature". The user as the second composer: We now know that the metaphor is completed by the choices and decisions of the user as perceptor or even performer. But can he intervene and take responsibility in the metaphoric composition? The answer is an emphatic, yes!
There can be more than one composer, architect, engineer and interior designer. But these are usually associated with those teams caring out their work in the initial design period before beneficial occupancy. The very big exception is commercial office and retail space which is initially designed for unknown future tenants. These tenants themselves are left to design and often build to suit their own needs and aesthetics within established frameworks of the project. The cry for user involvement is more than that. It is a cry for user's social and psychological character and personality to be expressed. It is also a cry to redistribute large fees paid to the original team. If those fees and the projects could be organized so that future occupants could not only be represented in the original creation but that the original creator would devise a way to surrender his fees, control and responsibility to future occupants. Metaphors, Architecture & Music In this way those future users would not only have the desire but also the added motivation to continue the creation of the original metaphor responsibility moral, legal, or mental accountability: reliability trustworthy: burden; liable: able to answer for one's conduct and obligations; able to choose for oneself, between one and another alternative. "We are often held accountable for things for which we are not responsible” in terms compatible with their personal context.ئ
The architect of public works is the authorized responsible agent for the needs of the public. Although he is the consultant to the owner (who may or may not ultimately retain ownership) his role as the user's agent is to look out for the health, safety and welfare the users and the owner as well as insure that the owner will receive from the contractor the planned quality at a reasonable price. He is in control of these issues and on behalf of the typical plurality of claims of any facility. This plurality may be of use, ownership and control. It is only in building types involving sustained use where user's claims may be raised above casual concern to a strong need and desire to: improve their environment; expand for more space; and impose their norms and values. The issue of adaptability centers on the interference by the control person to prevent and not facilitate these natural needs. The tenant does not control the apartment, shop, or area he is using. He can rearrange the أ"movables (furniture, low partitions, raised floor, equipment, etc) which he controls but not the constructed walls, ceilings, etc. Metaphors, Architecture & Music It is these limitations, constraints and restrictions within these pluralities which are claims upon the facility.
The issue is different in demand from the private personal habitat where the أ constructs his personal أ metaphor to the shared public functions. The metaphor of the civic functions includes the collective metaphor of individual metaphors and is the basis for the classic plaza, monument and public building. Just as the performer and the audience intuitively play out their responsibility in a concert to complete the composer's original metaphor so the user is inclined Akbar, S. Crisis in the built environment play a role in completing the building metaphor.
The intentions of the original composer or architect can be modified to include such future completions. Claims adaptations interventions. In a theater it is the way performers everything about their performance and the scenario to the theater. The theater is intentionally designed to receive the troupe's needed claims for scenery, access, lighting, acoustics, sound effects, lines of vision, scale, proportions, storage, preparation, etc. The theater's architect's metaphor must potentiate metaphor of performers, and through them the users'. Ultimately the user completes the metaphor originated by the architect of the theater and composer of the concert, play, ballet, opera etc. Even Jazz music, modern dance and, Improvisation Theater begins with a metaphor which is then complete, scaled and metered with interventions, insinuations and initiatives.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
It is the oriental who mastered repetitive patterns which adapt well to varieties of applications and adaptations. It is metametaphor which describes the creative context which weaves together the metaphoric dimensions of composers, performers and audience as it does owners, managers (control) and users. The user is the second composer of the metaphor which when incorporated into the originating composer's initial experience reifies into inclusive rather than exclusive metaphors such inclusive metaphors facilitate the user’s claims and potentiate his metaphor. Both composers can participate simultaneously in the present, or be in the two times of the present and the future. In this way the two interact where the *Akbar, S. "Crisis in the built environment Where is a temporary building forming the background for a dramatic performance; a stage setting?
Composer of the future impacts the composer of the present and vice versa. The two form a reciprocal metaphoric interaction between their two histories, contexts and special training lesson. Everyone who has sought the environment for the meaning, identity and significance of his or her life knows that this information is relative and can be the basis for change. These metaphors can provide the comfort of places as with all its' negative connotations of the tenement of a typical slum. Metaphors, Architecture & Music Landmarks have a positive effect for users and incarnate what a society considers its' best. As such, everyone welcomes and identifies with its' message. Landmarks incorporate unusual historical and aesthetic values and are therefore set aside for preservation. We preserve our landmarks for much the same reasons as classical music: to continue to participate in the original metaphor being in that family of high quality perceptions. This is made possible by metametaphoric phenomenon which is perineal and receptive to all users.
It is permissive and accessible and is inherently adaptive. In any case friendly metaphors are first born within a composer which users may access by perception and evolvement. The lesson for users is to be receptive, involved and perceptive. Look for أmetaphors and participate fully in their potential. Reject those that are incompatible or which have become obsolete or irrelevant. Participate too, in أ metaphors which are external to your own context to receive the culture and uplift to your own standards. Choose and decide about your metaphoric context and participate in its' benefits. Isn't this a major reason why, if we can and however small, inconvenient and expensive, we select a free standing single family house? With all its' functional drawbacks, for many, it still represents the best possibility for a personal metaphor; the selection of an old low-rent apartment which likewise offers the opportunity for remodeling, renovation and adaptability. Metaphors, Architecture & Music Even in places where this may be restricted for a second home in the country or a cottage in a city like Leipzig, Germany where we can metaphor with a miniature version of the house (Schraeber Gardens) we might have had if we did not live in the city.
Mausoleums in the form of "dream houses, villas, castles, palaces, etc." testify to this أ metaphoric urge. Even on the other extreme if we carefully study the dwellings of أSquatters and the urban "homeless we can see glimpses of these same metaphors in the choice of location, colors, coverings, spaces, heights and furnishings. It is not these specifically but all of the issues discussed above that are the user's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and music Author's work with both groups in "La Pearla", Puerto Rico and New York City’s South Bronx, Harlem and Brooklyn's Bedford Stuyvesant; where phenomena is an observable fact or event; a fact of scientific interest susceptible of scientific description and explanation. phenomenology. All of this work in metametaphors is a kind of study of the development of human consciousness and self awareness as a preface to a philosophy about art and architecture.
It describes formal structures of metaphors and the perception of metaphors in abstraction from any claims concerning manifest existence. As metaphors exist we can only sense them but they do not have physical material properties of structure material, density, weight, dimension, velocity, etc. "Metaphors" like the "mind" are phenomena. It is intensively educational and experiential.
Metaphors, Architecture & Music
Main currents in Modern Thought , September©October 1971, Vol.28, No.1 The Journal of the Center of Integrative Educationؤ Weiss, Paul, "أThe metaphorical processؤ" (19,10,11, 12)ئ Gordon, W.J.J., "Synectics: "أThe metaphorical way of knowingؤ "(pg. 12©14).ئ Fez-Barringten, B.,
أ"Architecture, The Making of Metaphor": Notes from a Symposium (Yale University 1967) (pg. 9©10; 14©16).ئ "Journal of Architecture Education" , November 1992, Vol.46, No.2 Published by Butterworth©Heinemann for the Association of the Collegiate Schools of Architecture, Inc (ACSA).
MacGilvray, Daniel F. (Texas A & M University), "أThe proper education of musicians and architects" (pg. 87©94). Dodds, George, "أOn the place of Architectural Speculation
Akbar, Jamel, "أCrisis in the built environment" (the case of the Muslim city). 1988; A Mimar Book; Concept Media Pte Ltd/E. J. Brill Pub. Co.). Provides a definition of the claims by users to clarify the user as the second of metaphor’s composers.
All definitions and references to grammar and syntax is from " Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary” by Merriam-Webster Inc. Publishers (1991) William A. Llewellyn, President and Publishers.
Readers are invited to avail themselves of other works by this author about Metametaphorؤ which delve further into those items found in italics throughout this work. All may accessed online!
Researched Publications: Refereed and Peer-reviewed Journals: "monographs":
Barie Fez-Barringten; Associate professor Global University
1. "Architecture the making of metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education; Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
2."Schools and metaphors" Main Currents in Modern Thought/Center for Integrative Education Sep.-Oct. 1971, Vol. 28 No.1, New Rochelle, New York.
3."User's metametaphoric phenomena of architecture and Music": “METU” (Middle East Technical University: Ankara, Turkey): May 1995" Journal of the Faculty of Architecture
4."Metametaphors and Mondrian: Neo-plasticism and its' influences in architecture" 1993 Available on Academia.edu since 2008
5. "The Metametaphor of architectural education", North Cypress, Turkish University. December, 1997
6."Mosques and metaphors" Unpublished,1993
7."The basis of the metaphor of Arabia" Unpublished, 1994
8."The conditions of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1994
9. "The metametaphor theorem" Architectural Scientific Journal, Vol. No. 8; 1994 Beirut Arab University.
10. "Arabia’s metaphoric images" Unpublished, 1995
11."The context of Arabia in metaphor" Unpublished, 1995
12. "A partial metaphoric vocabulary of Arabia" “Architecture: University of Technology in Datutop; February 1995 Finland
13."The Aesthetics of the Arab architectural metaphor" “International Journal for Housing Science and its applications” Coral Gables, Florida.1993
14."Multi-dimensional metaphoric thinking" Open House, September 1997: Vol. 22; No. 3, United Kingdom: Newcastle uponTyne
15."Teaching the techniques of making architectural metaphors in the twenty-first century.” Journal of King Abdul Aziz University Engg...Sciences; Jeddah: Code: BAR/223/0615:OCT.2.1421 H. 12TH EDITION; VOL. I and “Transactions” of Cardiff University, UK. April 2010
16. “Word Gram #9” Permafrost: Vol.31 Summer 2009 University of Alaska Fairbanks; ISSN: 0740-7890; page 197
17. "Metaphors and Architecture." ArchNet.org. October, 2009.at MIT
18. “Metaphor as an inference from sign”; University of Syracuse Journal of Enterprise Architecture; November 2009: and nomnated architect of the year in speical issue of Journal of Enterprise Architecture.Explainging the unique relationship between enterprise and classic building architecture.
19. “Framing the art vs. architecture argument”; Brunel University (West London); BST: Vol. 9 no. 1: Body, Space & Technology Journal: Perspectives Section
20. “Urban Passion”: October 2010; Reconstruction & “Creation”; June 2010; by C. Fez-Barringten; http://reconstruction.eserver.org/;
21. “An architectural history of metaphors”: AI & Society: (Journal of human-centered and machine intelligence) Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Communication: Pub: Springer; London; AI & Society located in University of Brighton, UK; AI & Society. ISSN (Print) 1435-5655 - ISSN (Online) 0951-5666 : Published by Springer-Verlag;; 6 May 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j2632623064r5ljk/ Paper copy: AIS Vol. 26.1. Feb. 2011; Online ISSN 1435-5655; Print ISSN 0951-5666; DOI 10.1007/s00146-010-0280-8; : Volume 26, Issue 1 (2011), Page 103.
22. “Does Architecture Create Metaphors?; G.Malek; Cambridge; August 8,2009 Pgs 3-12 (4/24/2010)
23. “Imagery or Imagination”:the role of metaphor in architecture:Ami Ran (based on Architecture:the making of metaphors); :and Illustration:”A Metaphor of Passion”:Architecture oif Israel 82.AI;August2010pgs.83-87.
24. “The soverign built metaphor”: monograph converted to Power Point for presentation to Southwest Florida Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 2011
25.“Architecture:the making of metaphors”:The Book; published: 2012 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street Newcastle upon Tyne NE6 2XX United Kingdom Edited by Edward Richard Hart, 0/2 249 Bearsden Road Glasgow G13 1DH UK Lecture: http://globaluniversity.academia.edu/BarieFezBarringten/Books/1449761/Architecture_The_Making_Of_Metaphors